Kayumanis

Family • Rutaceae - Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr. - Xi ye huang pi


Scientific names

Clausena anisum-olens (Blanco) Merr.
Clausena excavata F.-Vill.
Clausena indica Vidal
Clausena sanki (Perr.) Molino
Clausena todayensis Elm.
Clausena warburgii Perk.
Cookia anisum-olens Blanco
Cookia anisodora Blanco

Common names

Danglais (Bag.)
Kandulong (Sub.)
Kayumanis (Tag.)
Kalomata (Tag.)
Kamañgianis (Tag.)
Maisipaisi (Tag.)
Xi ye huang pi (Chin.)

Kayumanis

Botany
Kayumanis is a small tree up to 3 to 6 meters in height. Leaves are 20 to 30 centimeters long, with 7 to 11 leaflets which are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5 to 11 centimeters long. Panicles are 15 to 20 centimeters long, terminal, and in the upper axils. Flowers are greenish, white, fragrant, 5-parted, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is nearly spherical or ovoid, about 1 centimeter in diameter, whitish when mature.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) New Monoterpenoid Coumarins from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang et al / Molecules 2008, 13, 931-937April 2008

(2) Clausenain B, a phenylalanine-rich cyclic octapeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Pin He et al / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.20 no.3 São Paulo 2009 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532009000300011

(3) Insecticidal effect of anisaldehyde against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus
maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
 / Ndomo A F, Tapondjou L A et al / DOI: 10.5073/jka.2010.425.316

(4) A New Cyclopeptide from Clausena anisum-olens / Yun-Song Wang, Hong-Ping He, Jing-Hua Yang et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 88, Issue 8, pages 2345–2348, August 2005 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200590169

(5) Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil of Different Organs from Clausena anisum-olens / SU Xiu-fang*,LIANG Zhen-yi / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, 2011-12

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Distribution
– In forests, at low and medium altitudes, in Bontoc, Benguet, Pampanga, Batangas, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Masbate, Basilan and Mindanao, ascending to 1,500 meters.
– Cultivated in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Taiwan.
– Reported naturalized in China.

Constituents
– Distillation of the leaves yield a colorless oil with a faint odor of anise or anethol.
– The volatile oil contains methyl clavicol.
– The chemical composition of the oil varies among individual plants, from almost pure methyl chavicol (estragol) to almost pure anethol. A minor component is anisaldelhyde.
– Analysis of aqueous extract yielded tannins and saponins.
– Study isolated a new cyclopeptide, clausenain.
– Essential oils from stems roots, leaves, fruits, and flowers yielded 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole. The main types of the compounds are aromatic hydrocarbons,alkane,olefin and fatty acids.

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Properties
– Leaves when crushed are aromatic.
– Alcoholic extracts have a strong anise-like odor.
– Oil extracted from the leaves is inactive, with a faint odor of anise or anethol.

Parts used 
Roots, leaves and fruits.

Uses
Culinary and nutrition
– Leaves used in preparing local dishes and beverages.
– Essential oil from the leaves considered a potential substitute of anise oil for the making of “anisado,” a local alcoholic beverage.

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Folkloric
– In the Philippines, decoction of roots and fruits used for cough with fever.
– Decoction of leaves used for nausea of pregnancy.
– Leaves are stuffed in pillows for its soporofic effect.
– Leaves used for rheumatic baths.
– In China, the leaves and twigs are used for the treatment of dysentery and arthritis.

Others
Leaves also used to flavor cigarettes.

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Study Findings
• Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Antifungal: Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins: anisucumarin A and B. The EtOH extract of Clausena anisum-olens showed antifungal activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. Anisucumarin A and B failed to show detectable antifungal activity.
• Octapeptide: Study isolated a new cyclic octapeptide, clausenain B, a phenylalanin-rich cyclic octapeptide.
• Hekumarone: Study isolated a new O-terpenoidal coumarin, hekumarone, from the leaves and twigs. Coumarins are considered characteristic and distinguishable chemical markers for the Rutaceae family.
• Insecticidal / Anisaldehyde: Anisaldehyde, a compound found in the essential oil of Clausena anisum-olens was tested for insecticidal activities against Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus. It caused significant mortality in the two tested insects, the latter more susceptible than the former.
• Antimicrobial: Study extracted a volatile oil from the nutlets of Clausena anisum-olenas. The major chemical compositions were 4-methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3- benzodioxole (47.07%), 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- benzene (8.25%), 2,6- dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-pheno (7.17%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.05%) and tricosane (4.95%). The volatile oil had strong inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

Availability
Wild-crafted.