Kupang

Family • Fabaceae / Leguminosae - Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr. - TREE BEAN - Qui hua dou

Scientific names

Acacia javanica DC.
Acacia niopa Llanos
Gleditsia javanica Lam.
Inga timoriana DC.
Mimosa biglobosa Roxb.
Mimosa peregrina Blanco
Parkia roxburghii G. Don
Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.
Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr.

Common names

Amarang (Tagb.)
Bagoen (Ilk.)
Balaiuak (Ilk.)
Kapang (Tag., Sbl., Tabg., Ilk.)
Tree bean (Engl.)
Qui hua dou (Taiwan)

Other vernacular names

BURMESE: Mai-karien.
INDONESIAN: Alai, Kedawung, Peundeuy.
MALAYSIA: Keduwang, Kupang, Petai Kerayong, Kedaung.
THAI: Karieng, Riang.

Kupang

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Iridoid glucosides from leaves and stem barks of Parkia javanica / Bisswanath Dinda et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 3 March 2009 , pages 229 – 235 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020902727280

(2) Parkia timoriana / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(3) IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES ON ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF PARKIA JAVANI CA /
RUPANJALI SAHA, JAYATI MOOKERJEE BASU, ANANDA MOOKERJEE, BIKAS C MOHANTA, SOUMITRA K CHAUDHURI, SYAMAL ROY, BISWANATH DINDA and SAMIR K SIL / *

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Botany
Kupang is a very large tree growing to a height of 25 to 40 meters. Leaves are evenly bipinnate, 30 to 80 centimeters long. Pinnae are 40 to 60, 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are 60 to 140, linear-oblong, 6-12 millimeters long, close-set, shining above, and pointed at the tip. Heads are dense, obovoid or pyriform, axillary, long-peduncled, up to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 1 centimeter long. The pods are 25 to 30 centimeters long, about 3.5 centimeters wide, rather thick, pendulous, black and shining when mature, containing 15 to 20 seeds.

Distribution
– Common in forests at low and medium altitudes in La Union to Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Palawan.
– Also occurs in India to Timor.

Constituents
– Pulp contains 60% sugar weight (a mixture of dextrose and levulose); 0.98 % free tartaric and citric acids, fats, and albuminoids.
– Study extracted a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin showed two forms of protein that appeared to be single polypeptide chains.
– Phytochemical screening yielded ß-sitosterol, ursolic acid (pentacyclic triterpene acid), iridoid glucosides.

Parkia timoriana, at Ho'omaluhia Botanical Garden in Kaneohe, HI
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Parts utilized
Seeds.

Uses
Edibility
– Pods are edible. Pulp is sweetish with an odor of violets.
– In Africa, the roasted seeds make a coffee-like infusion called “soudan coffee.”

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Folkloric
– Seeds are used, in lieu of peppermint, for abdominal colic.
– Pods are used for bleeding hemorrhoids.
– In India, pods are used for bleeding piles. Bark extract used for diarrhea and dysentery.
– Lotion made from bark and leaves applied to sores and skin affections.
– Tribal people of Tripura use P. javanica extract to cure stomach aches and cholera. Mizo tribals use the green portion of the fruit to cure wounds and scabies, and eat the fruit or young fruit for diarrhea, dysentery, and food poisoning.

Others
– Dye: Fruit skin known to give a brown color but not used extensively for dyeing fabrics.

Study Findings

• Iridoid Glucosides / Leaf and Bark: Study yielded two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A and B along with known compounds, urosolic acid, B-sitosterol from the leaf and bark of Pj.
• Hemagglutinating Activity: Study yielded a lectin from the beans of Pj. The purified lectin could agglutinate the RBCs of rabbit and rat but not human, sheep or goose.
• Antibacterial: Methanol crude extracts showed antibacterial activity against six bacterial strains tested.
• Anticancer: Methanol extract of Parkia javanica showed efficacy in imparting growth inhibition against various human cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. The decrease in cancer cells was through induction of apoptosis.
• Antileishmanial: Methanol extract of P. javanica showed negligible anti-promastigote activity but significant anti-amastigote activity. Results suggest involvement of macrophage mitochondria in the killing of Leishmania parasites.
• Antiproliferative: Study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of plant extract in vitro and in vivo. Results showed 35 to 94% antiproliferative activity in vitro with different cell line. In vivo results showed 99% protection and increase in survival of cancer cell carrying mice. Results suggest induction of apoptosis involving mitrochondrial pathway.
• Thioproline / Radioprotective: Thioproline is the principal agent responsible for the distinctive sulphur-aroma in Parkia timoriana seeds. It is a condensation product of formaldehyde and cysteine and is a natural metabolite that can act as antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Study showed radioprotective effects of pure thioproline through protection of DNA against gamma irradiation, with practical applications in cancer radiotherapy and risk reduction of exposed individuals.

Availability
Wild-crafted.