Family • Solanaceae - Physalis peruviana Linn. - WILD GOOSEBERRY - Mao suan jiang
|Physalis peruviana Linn.|
|Physalis edulis Sims|
|Physalis esculenta Salisbury|
|Cape gooseberry (Engl.)|
|Ground cherry (Engl.)|
|Horse tomato (Engl.)|
|Wild gooseberry (Engl.)|
|Mao suan jiang (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|ARABIC: Hhabwah, Hhashîsh sakrân.||JAPANESE: Ke hôzuki.|
|CHINESE: Deng long cao, Deng long guo, Suan jiang cao, Xiao guo suan jiang.||NEPALESE: Ishmagol, Jangalii mevaa, Rasabarii.|
|DANISH: Ananaskirsebaer, Kapstikkelsbaer.||PORTUGUESE : Alquequenje amarelo, Groselha do Perú (Brazil), Herva noiva do Perú (Brazil), Tomateiro inglês, Tomatinho-de-capucho.|
|DUTCH: Ananaskers, Goudbes, Kaapsche kruisbes, Kaapse kruisbes, Lampion, Peruviaanse aardkers.||QUECHUA: Topotopo.|
|FINNISH: Ananaskirsikka, Kapinmarja, Kapinkarviainen, Karviaiskoiso.||SINHALESE: Thol thakkali.|
|FRENCH: Alkékange jaune doux, Alkékange du Pérou, Coqueret comestible, Coqueret du Pérou, Coquerelle, Groseille du Cap, Poc poc (Middle-East).||SPANISH: Aguaymanto (Peru), Alquequenje amarillo, Alchechengi del Perú, Amor en bolsa, Cereza del Perú, Chuchuva (Venezuela), Guchavo (Colombia), Motojobobo embolsado, Uchuba (Peru), Vejigón (Colombia), Yuyo de ojas.|
|GERMAN: Ananaskirsche, Capische stachelberre, Essbare Judaskirsche, Judenkirsche, Kap-Stachelbeere, Kapstachelbeere, Peruanische Schlutte.||TURKISH: Sarhosh otu.|
|ITALIAN: Alchechenge giallo, Alchechengi giallo, Alchechenge grosso commestible, Capulé, Fisalis, Vescicaria.|
Lobo-lobohan is more or less an erect herb, with a more vigorous growth than Physalis minima, more upright with less deeply toothed leaves, and with larger flowers. Berries are oblong, about 2 centimeters long. Seeds are numerous, very small, pale yellow and embedded in juicy pulp.
– Thoroughly established In open, waste places in Lepanto and the Benguet subprovinces in Luzon.
– Native of tropical America.
– Yields biologically active compounds i.e., phytosterols, vitamins, essential minerals, withanolides and physalins.
– Seeds constitute 4.5 to 5 % of the weight of the husk-free, fresh, ripe berries, and contain 6.28 percent of a pale yellow semi-drying oil.
– The oil consists of oleic acid, linolic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and a saponifiable matter.
– Total lipid contents in whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% on fresh weight basis, respectively. The dominant fatty acid was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid. Major saturates were palmitic and stearic acids. Phytosterols were highest in the pulp/peel oil with the highest amounts of unsaponifiables.
– Study of fruit showed high content of ashes and total lipids, 0.8 and 3.16 g/100g, respectively. Linoleic acid was the predominant in the lipidic fraction. Mineral composition showed K, Mg, Ca, and Fe as the main elements. Zinc was also found in high concentrations, but lower when compared to principal sources like oysters, shrimp, beef, poultry, fish, and beans.
– Study of centesimal and mineral composition and fatty acid profile of a lipidic fraction yielded high contents of ashes and total lipds and K, Mg, Ca and Fe as the main mineral elements.
– Study of fruit for flavonol contents yielded rutin, myricetin and kaempferol.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Physalis peruviana – L. / Goldenberry / Plants For A Future
(2) Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway / Shu-Jing Wu et al / Cancer Letters, Volume 215, Issue 2, Pages 199-208 (25 November 2004)
(3) Supercritical carbon dioxide extract exhibits enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis peruviana / S J Wu, J Y Tsai et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 108, Issue 3, 6 December 2006, Pages 407-413 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.027
(4) 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest / Ching-Yu Yen, Chien-Chih Chiu et al / BMC Cancer 2010, 10:46doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-46
(5) Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures / Pardo J M, Fontanilla M R et al / Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jul;49(7):3074-9.
(6) Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana / Wu SJ, Ng LT et al / Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jun;28(6):963-6.
(7) Antioxidative and Hepatoprotective Effects of Physalis peruviana Extract against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats / J C Chang, C C Lin et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, Nos. 10–11, pp. 724–731
(8) Preliminary studies on antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana Linn. (Solanaceae) against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats / M Arun and V V Asha / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 111, Issue 1, 20 April 2007, Pages 110-114 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.038
(9) Oil Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) / Mohamed F. Ramadan and Jörg-T. Mörsel / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51 (4), pp 969–974 / DOI: 10.1021/jf020778z
(10) Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach et al / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
(11) Sorting Physalis names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 – 2020 The University of Melbourne.
(12) Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L. / Basak Ozlem Perk, Sinem Ilgin, Ozlem Atli, Hale Gamze Duymus, and Basar Sirmagul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/707285
(13) Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Physalis peruvina / Tuğçe DEMİR , Mehmet Özgün ÖZEN, E. Esin HAMEŞ-KOCABAŞ / Medicinal Plant Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 4 / doi: 10.5376/mpr.2014.04.0004
(14) Minerals and essential fatty acids of the exotic fruit Physalis peruviana L. / Eliseu Rodrigues, Ismael Ivan Rockenbach*, Ciriele cataneo, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Eduardo Sidinei Chaves, Roseane Fett / Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 29(3): 642-645, jul.-set. 2009
(15) Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats / Darakhshan Taj, Hira Khan, Viqar Sultana, Jehan Ara and Syed Ehteshamul-Haque / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.27, No.3, May 2014, pp.491-494
(16) Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig / Félicien Mushagalusa Kasali, Justin Ntokamunda Kadima, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana*, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(11): 841-846
(17) Potential of Peruviose A and B from Physalis peruviana L calyces to treat Inflammatory Bowel Disease: In vivo and in vitro studies / YC Ocampo, JP Castro, DE Rivera, L Barrios, LA Franco / Planta Med 2013; 79 – PB34 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1351979
– Considered vermifuge and diuretic.
– Studies have suggested anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties.
Edibility / Nutrition
– Fruit is considered edible, raw or cooked. (Caution: See study toxicity below)
– Excellent for making of jams and preserves; for pies and cakes.
– Fruit is rich in A, C and B-complex vitamins
– Zulus use an Infusion of the leaf as an enema for children with abdominal upsets.
– Heated leaf used by Europeans to draw inflammations.
– Juice of leaves used for worms and bowel complaints.
– In India, used by the Muthuvan and Tamilian tribes for jaundice.
– In Peruvian traditional medicine, used for treating pterygium.
– In other traditional systems, used for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism.
• Anti-Cancer / Cell Apoptosis Mechanisms: Study results suggest the ethanol extract of PP induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of several extracts showed the SCEPP-5 extract with the strongest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Its protection against LPS-induced inflammation could be through the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.
• Anti-Lung Cancer / 4ß-Hydroxywithanolide: Study showed the golden berry-derived 4BHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer.
• Anti-Pterygium / Anti-Fibroblast: Juice of PP exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone. A dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblast was noted. Study showed PP fruit juice’s anti-pterygium effect may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth.
• Antioxidant: Study showed the ethanol extracts to possess good antioxidant activities; the highest, obtained with 95% ethanol extract of PP.
• Hepatoprotective / APAP Induced Injury: Study showed the aqueous extract of PP possesses antioxidant activity and potent hepatoprotective effect against APAP-induced liver injury in rats.
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Injury: Study of water, ethanol and hexane extracts showed antihepatotoxic activities against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.
• Toxicity Studies / Cardiac Toxicity / Fruit: Study evaluated the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the male test group, findings suggested cardiac toxicity only at high doses.
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity on Various Cancer Cell lines: Study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of edible parts of P. peruviana on different cancer cell lines. Antioxidant capacity of a crude extract showed an IC50 of 0.3±0.003 on DPPH radical scavenging method. Cytotoxicity was shown on HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line), Hep3B (human hepatoma cell line), SaOS-2 (human osteosarcoma cell line) and SH-SY5 (human neuroblastoma cell line.
• Antihepatotoxic Effect / Whole Ripe Fruits: Study of whole ripe fruit and water and ethanol extracts in carbon tetracholoride intoxicated rats showed hepatoprotection with significant lowering of elevated serum markers. The water extract showed better activity than the whole ripe fruit and ethanol extract.
• Antidiabetic Effect / Leaf Extracts / Toxicity in High Doses: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaf powder on guinea pigs. Crude aqueous extracts showed hypoglycemic activity, but a high doses may cause severe intoxication. Autopsy showed hemorrhage and swelling in vital organs.
• Peruviose A and B in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Study of new sucrose esters, Peruviose A and B isolated from the calyces of P. peruviana, significantly reduced the extent and severity of tissue damage, colonic weight/length ration in using a TNBS-colitis model in rats. Results suggest Peruviose A and B can effectively ameliorate experimental IBD, giving new application to calyces which is a waste product in fruit production and an unexplored source of bioactive molecules.