Lumanai

Family • Euphorbiacea - Homonoia riparia Lour. - WILLOW-LEAVED WATER CROTON - Shui liu

Scientific names

Homonoia riparia Lour.
Lumanaja fluviatilis Blanco
Adelia nerifolia Heyne ex Roth
Spathiostemon salicinus
Ricinus salicinus Hassk.

Other vernacular names

CAMBODIA: Rei tuk.
INDIA: Pashanbhed, Kshudra pashanbhed.
INDONESIA: Sobah, Jurai, Sangkir.
LAOS: Kh’aiz fa:d.
MALAYSIA: Kelereh, Mempenai, Kayu suarah.
MYANMAR: Momakha.
THAILAND: Khrai-nam, Khrai-hin, Khrai.
VIETNAM: Ru ri, Ri ri, Cay ru ri nuoc.

Common names

Agibaba (Ibn.) Kagoyoi (Tag.)
Agui (Tag.) Lomonai (Tag.)
Agukuk (Tag.) Lumonai (Tag.)
Agoyoi (Tag.) Mayoyos (P. Bis.)
Aguyoi (Tag.) Malabugos (P. Bis.)
Alosai (Tag.) Managos (Tag.)
Amagos (Tagb.) Mangapos (Tag.)
Atañgatañgan (Ibn.) Miagui (P. Bis.)
Bilibig (Bik.) Miagouk (P. Bis.)
Chomanai (Ig.) Water willow (Engl.)
Dumanai (Ibn., Tag.) Willow-leaved water croton (Engl.)
Dumani (Ig.) Shui liu (Chin.)
Hañgaraui (S. L. Bis.)

Botany
Lumanai is a shrub attaining a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, 12 to 20 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters wide; the upper surface is green and shining; the lower surface, brown and hairy. Capsules are about 8 millimeters in diameter, hairy and borne on axillary, solitary, hairy spikes, 5 to 12centimeters long.

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Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) In vitro anthelmintic activity of root of Homonoia riparia against Pheretima posthuma / Satish Kumar B N, Sanjay Prahlad Umachigi et al / Pharmacologyonline 2: 1253-1257, 2011

(2) Homonoia riparia / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(3) Antifungal activity study of the extracts of Homonoia riparia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Phyllanthus fraternus / Ujwala C Bapat, Deepali Mhapsekar / ORAL PRESENTATION, 2012, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 49.

(4) Cycloartane-type triterpenes from the leaves of Homonoia riparia with VEGF-induced angiogenesis inhibitory activity. / Lee I, Kim J, Kim YS, Yoo NH, Kim CS, Jo K, Kim JH, Bach TT, Kim JS. / J Nat Prod. 2012 Jul 27;75(7):1312-8. doi: 10.1021/np300224k. Epub 2012 Jun 25.

(5) Chemical constituents from the roots of Homonoia riparia / Yang SM, Liu XK, Qing C, Wu DG, Zhu DY. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Mar;42(3):292-6.

(6) The Experimentation on a New Saponin for Its Extraction Separation from Homonoia Riparia Lour and the Effects on Hyperuricemia / CheRenYu / Dissertation / Third Military Medical University

Lumanai

Distribution
– Along small, swift streams, on banks and stream beds at low and medium altitudes from Cagayan to Sorsogon Province in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Palawan, Sibuyan, Negros, and Mindanao.
– Also found in India to Taiwan, southward to through Malaya to Timor and Celebes.

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Constituents
– Phytochemical study of heartwood and stem bark extracts yielded sterols, fatty acid, triterpenoids and derivative. The triterpene acid 3-acetyl aleuritolic acid was reported for the first time.
– Study of leaves have reported taraxerone, gallic acid and quercetin glycoside.
– Heartwood has yielded B-sitosterol, stigmasterol, eicosanoic acid, gallic acid, B-sitosterol-3-O-B-D-glucoside; from the bark, taraxerone and taraxerol.
– Aqueous extracts of dried leaves and flowers yielded tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, and alkaloids.
– Study on leaves yielded Six new cycloartane-type triterpenes, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,7β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside, and 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside , together with one known compound, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside.

Properties
– Stimulant, depurative
– Powdered root is considered laxative, diuretic and emetic.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, fruit, bark, wood..

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Uses
Folkloric
– In the southern part of the Philippine Archipelago, species was used, like sarsaparilla, as a stimulant in the treatment of venereal diseases.
– Decoction of roots used as an emetic.
– Water running at the foot of the shrub considered to be depurative.
– Malays of northern Perak use a poultice of pounded leaves and fruit for skin diseases; a decoction may be drunk for at the same time.
– In Cambodia, juice of leaves and shoots used on the hair; drink made from them is considered depurative and clearing to the skin.
– Infusion of wood used for malaria.
– Decoction of root is laxative and diuretic; used for stone, bladder stones, gonorrhea, syphilis and thirst.
– In Java, fruit is considered medicinal.
– In India, used to treat skin diseases.
– In Vietnam, roots used for influenza; also for detoxification.
– In India, root used as laxative and diuretic, and in treatment of vesical bladder stone.

Study Findings
• Anthelmintic: Study of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Homonoia riparia was evaluated for anthelmintic activity against adult earth worms, Pheretima posthuma. Both extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, the ethanol extract more potent than the aqueous extract. Standard reference drug was albendazole.
• Antifungal: Study evaluated the antifungal activity of extracts of three plants, viz., Homonoia riparia, P. tithymaloides, and Phyllanthus fraternus. Only Homonoia riparia showed antifungal activity, the aqueous extracts of dry flowers and leaves inhibiting the growth of T. mentagrophytes.
• Angiogenesis Inhibitory Activity / Cycloartane-type Triterpenes: Study yielded six new cycloartane-type triterpenes. Study investigated the inhibitory effects of compounds 1, 3-7 on VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vivo in rats.
• Chemical Constituents / Roots / Weak Cytotoxicity: Study of ethyl acetate extract of roots yielded a new compound and twelve known compounds. Compound 2, aleuritolic acid, exhibited weak cytotoxicity against AGZY 83-a (human lung cancer cells).
• Anti-Gout: Study evaluated water willow saponins in the hyperuricemic animal animal model. Results showed significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity, with a significant dose-response relationship to blood uric acid level. Results show the compounds can be used as lead compounds for the development of an anti-gout drug.
• Antiurolithiatic Activity: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of roots for antiurolithiatic activity against calcium oxalate and magnesium phosphate stones in male albino rats. Results showed the EE of HR to be effective in reducing deposition of calcium in the kidney of both prophylactic and curative group. It was also effective in reducing formation and dissolving pre-formed magnesium phosphate stones.

Availability
Wild-crafted.