Magdadakan

Family • Rubiaceae - Dilang-butiki - Hedyotis philippensis (Willd.) Merr. - GENIE'S TONGUE


Scientific names

Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng) Merr R. Bar.ex CB Rob.
Hedyotis congesta R. Bar.
Hedyotis laevigate Miq.
Hedyotis prostata Korth.
Knoxia corymbosa Elm.
Metabolus laevigatus DC.
Metabolus prostratus Blume
Oldenlandia cristata (Willd. ex Roem & Schult.)
Spermacoce philippensis Willd.

Common names

Dilang-butiki (Tag.)
Magdadakan (S. L. BIs.)
Malantubas (S. L. BIs.)
Pulapasagit (P. Bis.)
Genie’s tongue (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

MALAYSIA: Sebueh, Bunga kakarang.
THAILAND: Mae klon, Saam nam.
VIETNAM: An di[eef]n philippin.

Botany
Magdadakan is a low and spreading herb, up to 1 meter high, with slender twigs which are hairy when young. Leaves are smooth, except for the prominent midrib beneath, narrowly oblong, up to 9 centimeters long and 3.5 centimeters wide; the terminal ones much smaller, lanceolate, borne on 1-centimeter long petioles, acuminate and pointed on both ends. Flowers are axillary, white, crowded on heads in the axils of leaves. Calyx is bell-shaped. Corolla is a little longer than the calyx, and the limb separates into oblong, spreading segments. Fruit is green, smooth, somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) PRELIMINARY IN VITRO PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST PLANTS OF MALAYSIA / Wiart C, Kumar A, Mogana R et al /

(2) Shaman, Saiva and Sufi: A Study of the Evolution of Malay Magic / Richard Winstedt, Sir Richard Olof Winstedt / Google books

(3) Potential antifungal plants for controlling building fungi / Rajesh K Verma et al / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 7(4), 2008, pp 374-387

(4) Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng.) Merr. ex C.B.Rob. / The Plant List

(5) Hedyotis philippensis / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

Distribution
– Commonly found In forests, chiefly at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao, and Basilan, in most islands and provinces.
– Also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

Constituents
– Investigation of leaves and stems of H. philippensis yielded the major iridoid glycoside, asperuloside, along with scopoletin and astralgin.

Properties
Considered stomachic, anti-dysenteric.

Parts used
Roots.

Uses
Folkloric
– Roots used internally and externally.
– Decoction of roots used as a stomachic and for dysentery.
– Also used for gonorrhea.
– Poultice of roots applied to scalds and external body pain.
– Malays use a leaf infusion of H. congesta as baths for the infant made sickly by spirits.

Study Findings
• Smooth Muscle Activities: Of 27 plants studied, 48% demonstrated smooth muscle relaxant activity and 17% contraction. The bark of Hedyotis congesta demonstrated the most potent contraction.
• Antifungal: Methanol extract of bark and leaves showed activity against Candida albicans.
• Phytochemicals / Antoxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated 13 Rubiaceae plants for biologic activities and its bioactive constituents. H. philippensis yielded the major iridoid glycoside, asperuloside, along with scopoletin and astralgin. For antioxidant potential using FTC, TBA, DPPH assays, all the plants exerted strong antioxidant potential. H. philippensis leaves and stems showed potent inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS and IFN-y-induced RAW 264.7 cells in the anti-inflammatory assay.

Availability
Wild-crafted.