Family • Rutaceae - Chaetospermum glutinosum (Blanco) Swingle - TABOG - Fei lu bin mu jie

Scientific names

Chaetospermum glutinosum (Blanco) Swingle
Limonia glutinosa Blanco
Limonia engleriana Perk.
Aegle decandra Naves
Aegle glutinosa Merr.
Feronia ternata Blanco
Belou glutinosa Skeels
Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr.

Common names

Boyag (Tag.)
Kabuyau-aso (Tag.)
Kabuyok (Ilk.)
Kalantan (Ibn.)
Malakabuyau (Tag.)
Tabog (Tag.)
Tabok (Tag.)
Talubok (Tag.)
Uratan (Ilk.)
Glutinous swinglea (Engl.)
Fei lu bin mu jie (Chin.)


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) The essential oil of Achyrocline alata and Swinglea glutinosa have potent antitubucular activity / 1: Biomedica. 2009 Mar;29(1):51-60

(2) Bioactive Acridone Alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa / Bernard Weniger, Byung-Hun Um, Alexis Valentin, Aydee Estrada et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (9), pp 1221–1223 / DOI: 10.1021/np0005762

(3) Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. / Djalma A O dos Santos, Paulo Vieira et al / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.20 no.4 São Paulo 2009 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532009000400008

(4) In vitro activities of acridone alkaloids against Pneumocystis carinii / S F Queener, H Fujioka et al / Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991 February; 35(2): 377–379.


(6) In vitro cytotoxicity activity on several cancer cell lines of acridone alkaloids and N phenylethyl benzamide derivatives from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. / Braga, P A C;Dos Santos, D A P;Da Silva, M F D G F;Vieira, P C;Fernandes, J B;Houghton, P J;Fang, R / Natural product research 2007

Malakabuyau is a tree reaching a height of 10 meters, smooth except for the younger branchlets and inflorescences. Trunk is usually spiny. Small spines are usually present on the branches. Leaves are 3-foliate, oblong-ovate to elliptic, entire or somewhat crenate; the terminal one is 6 to 10 centimeters long and the lateral ones are smaller. Flowers are white, fragrant, and about 1.5 centimeters long. Fruit is green or yellow, rough on the outside, oblong, about 10 centimeters long, and 10-celled. Seeds are numerous and surrounded by a fibrous coating.



– In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from Isabela to Quezon Provinces of Luzon.

– Study isolated eleven acridone alkaloids. Three were characterized as: 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin- 9(10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-met hylfuro[3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2H-pyrano[2,3-a] acridin-12(7H)-one.
Parts used

– Juice of fruit used as a cure for a skin affliction, known in Ilocano as “kurad.”
– Also used in dogs to get rid of ticks.

Study Findings
• Anti-Tuberculosis: Study assessed the in vitro antitubercular activity of essential oils of 11 medicinal plants grown in Columbia. The major components were carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, limonene and beta-pinene. INH and rifampin were used for control treatments. Results showed the essential oils from Achyrocline alata and Swinglea glutinosa were the most active and suggests A alata and S glutinosa and their identified components are potential candidates as phytotherapeutic antitubercular agents.
• Alkaloids / Cytotoxicity / Anti-Plasmodial / Stem Bark: Study isolated a new prenylated acridone alkaloid from the stem-bark of S glutinosa, along with three known acridone aklaloids. The isolated alkaloids were assessed for anti-plasmodial activity and for cytotoxicity using HeLa cells.
• Anti-Plasmodial: Study evaluated the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity of 11 acridone alkaloids isolated from S. glutinosa. Nine had varying range of activity against P. falcifarum, a smaller number against T brucei rhodesiense and Leishmania donovani.
• Cytotoxicity / Stems and Fruits: A methanol extract from stems and fruits yielded 11 known acridone alkaloids and three N-phenylethyl-benzamide derivatives. The compounds were examined against three cancer cell lines. The acridones exhibited weak cytotoxicity but the amides showed moderate nonselective activity.