Malapako

Family • Onagraceae - Jussiaea erecta Linn. - RIMROSE YELLOW - Mao cao long

Scientific names

Jussiaeae erecta Linn.
Jussiaeae angustifolia Lam.
Jussiaeae octonervia Lam.
Jussiaeae octovalvis (Jacq.) Swartz
Jussiaeae pubescens L.
Jussiaeae suffriticosa L..
Jussiaeae villosa Lam.
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven
Ludwigia pubescens L.

Common names

Balansuit (Bag.)
Malapako (Bik.)
Pachar-pachar (Sul.)
Palangdisin (Ig.)
Talangkau (Ilk.)
Tayilakton (Tag.)
Tubong-talapang (Bik.)
Yerba de jicotea
False primrose (Engl.)
Primrose willow (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

ASSAMESE: Bon jalakia.
BENGALI: Ban lavanga.
CHINESE: Cao li jin chai, Cao long, Shui ding xiang, Zhen tong ci, Shui long, Shui yang cao, Sao guo cao.
HINDI: Ban long.
KANNADA: Kauakula.
MALAYALAM: Kattukarayamapu.
MARATHI: Pan lavang.
SANSKRIT: Bhu lavangah.
TAMIL: Kattukkirampu.
TELUGU: Nirubaccala.
VIETNAMESE: Rau murong dung

Botany
Malapako is a stout, coarse, smooth or somewhat hairy herb, more or less branched, often half-woody, and 0.4 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long. Flowers are solitary, yellow, axillary, without a stalk or with a very short stalk, borne in the upper leaf axils. Calyx is green. Petals are four, yellow, orbicular-obovate, and about 1 centimeter long. Capsules are green or purplish, clove-like shape, 3 to 5 centimeters long, 5 millimeters thick or less, and 8-ribbed, containing many rounded black seeds. Calyx lobes are persistent, oblong-ovate, and about 1 centimeter long.

Malapako

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of Jussiaea suffruticosa L. extract in rats / T. Murugesan, S.C. Mandal, T. Bhakta, J. Das et al / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0944-7113(00)80008-2,

(2) Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal profile of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. extract in rats / T Murugesan, Lopamudra Ghosh, Kakali Mukherjee et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 14, Issue 5, pages 381–383, August 2000 / DOI: 10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<381::AID-PTR590>3.0.CO;2-P

(3) Studies on the chemical constituents in herb of Ludwigia octovalvis / Yan J, Yang XW. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Dec;30(24):1923-6.

(4) Toxicological evaluation of 80% methanol extract of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven leaves (Onagraceae) in BALB/c mice. / Kadum Yakob H, Manaf Uyub A, Fariza Sulaiman S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 1;142(3):663-8. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.035. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

(5) Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Ludwigia octovalvis on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Some Pathogenic Bacteria / Haidar Kadum Yakob, Shaida F. Sulaiman and Abd M. Uyub / World Applied Sciences Journal 16 (1): 22-29, 2012

(6) Willow primrose / Common names / Flowers of India

Malapako2Distribution
– Throughout the Philippines In open, damp places, in swamps, etc.
– Pantropic.
– Occurs in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands.
– Native to Micronesia..

Constituents
– Study of Ludwigia octovalvis yielded thirteen compounds: beta-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy ursolic acid, tormentic acid, daucosterol, maltol, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, methyl brevifolincarboxylate, gallic acid, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10-pentahydroxydibenzo[b, d]pyran-6-one, and ellagic acid.

Properties
– Considered astringent, carminative, diuretic and vermifuge.

Parts used
Leaves

Uses
Culinary
– Leaves used for tea by the Malay.

Malapako4Malapako3

Folkloric
– Plant, pulped and steeped in buttermilk, used for diarrhea and dysentery.
– Decoction used as diuretic, vermifuge and purgative; also, used for flatulence.
– As astringent, used for hemoptysis and leucorrhea.
– Mucilaginous leaves used for poulticing headaches and for orchitis and glands in the neck.
– Leaves used for nervous diseases.
– Used for skin diseases.

Study Findings
• Antipyretic: Study was done to evaluate the anti-pyretic potential of a methanol extract of the aerial part of Jussiaea suffruticosa in yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Various doses of MEJS showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked temperature elevation. The effect was comparable to that of paracetamol.
• Anti-Diarrheal: Study was done to evaluate the anti-diarrheal potential of a methanol extract of J. suffruticosa on experimental models in rats. Results showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility following a charcoal meal in rats. The extract exhibited significant anti-diarrheal potential in all animal models.
• Toxicological Study / Hepatoprotective / immunostimulatory / Cardioprotective: Study evaluated the toxicity profile of an 80% methanolic extract of in BALB/c mice. Results showed no mortality or morbidity in acute and subacute toxicity testing. The extract yielded biologically active principles which may have immunostimulatory, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular protective properties.
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study evaluated twelve extracts of L. octovalvis for their total phenolic content, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity. There was a strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Results showed the leaf of L. octovalvis as a potential new source of natural mixture of antioxidant and anti-E. coli O157:H7.
• Chlorophyll a / Anti-Proliferative: Study evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of extracts and active constituent (chlorophyll a; CHL-a) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results showed CHL-a possesses potent anti-proliferative activity, and its apoptotic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes are mediated through the activation of CD95 system and AMPK signaling pathway.

Availability
Wild-crafted.