Family • Anacardiaceae - Mangifera indica Linn. - MANGO - Mang guo
|Mangifera indica Linn.|
|Mangifera anisodora Blanco|
|Mangifera domestica Gaertn.|
|Mangifera fragrans F.-Vill.|
|Mangifera rostrata Blanco|
|Mangifera sylvatica F.-Vill.|
|Paho (P. bis)|
|Mang guo (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|ARABIC: Manja, Manga, Mangô, Mangu.||KHMER: Svaay.|
|ARMENIAN: Mang, Mango.||KOREAN : Mang go.|
|ASSAMESE: Aam, Aamro, Ghariyam.||LAOTIAN: Mak mouang, Mwàngx.|
|BENGALI: Aama, Amchur.||LITHUANIAN: Indinis mangas.|
|BURMESE: Thayeq dhì, Thayeq.||MALAY: Ampelam, Mangga, Mangga, Mempelam.|
|CHINESE: Mi wang, Wang guo, Guo, Ma meng.||MALAYALAM: Amram, Choothaphalam, Manga, Maav, Maavu, Mampalam.|
|CZECH: Amčur , Mangovník indický.||MARATHI: Amba, Amchuur, Aamchuur.|
|DANISH: Mango, Mangofrugt, Mangotræ.||NEPALESE: Aanpa, Amacura.|
|DUTCH: Manga, Mangga, Manja, Mangoestanboom, Mangostanboom.||NORWEGIAN: Mango.|
|ESTONIAN: India mangopuu (tree), Mangopulber.||ORIYA: Aamba, Amchura.|
|FINNISH: Mango, Mangopuu.||PERSIAN: Anbeh.|
|FRENCH: Mangue, Manguier.||POLISH: Drzewo mangowe, Mango indyjskie.|
|GEORGIAN: Mango.||PORTUGUESE: Manga, Mangueira.|
|GERMAN: Indischer Mangobaum, Mango , Mangofrucht, Mangobaum, Mangopalme.||PUNJABI: Amb.|
|GREEK: Magko, Mangko.||RUSSIAN: Манго Mango|
|GUJARATI: Aambo, Ambodiya, Marvo.||SANSKRIT: Aamra, Ambrah, Amra chuta, Madhuula Madhuulaka, Madhuuli, Madhuulii.|
|HAUSA : Mangoro, Mangwaro.||SINHALESE: Amba, Dumpara, Etamba, Amba gasa.|
|HEBREW: Mango.||SLOVAKIAN: Mangovník indický.|
|HINDI: Āma, Am chur, Āmacura, An̄cūra, Kaccā āma.||TELUGU: Amramu, Māmiḍi, Māmiḍi kāya, Māmiḍi paṇḍu, Myāṅgō.|
|ICELANDIC: Mangó.||THAI: Mamuang.|
|ITALIAN: Mango||URDU: Aam, Amba, Amchur, Amchur.|
|JAPANESE: Anchaa, Mangoo, Mangou.||VIETNAMESE : Xoài.|
|KANNADA: Āmra, Maavu, Māvina haṇṇu, Mavinkai churu.|
Manga is a large tree, with a dense and spreading crown. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 10 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers are yellow, small, 3 to 4 millimeters long, borne on erect and hairy panicles, which as as often as long as the leaves. The fruit is a drupe, of varying shades of yellow, fleshy, oblong-ovoid,10 to 15 centimeters long, and slightly compressed, the skin is thin, and in the center is a large flattened, fibrous seed, and when ripe, surrounded by an edible yellow pulp.
It is a widely cultivated tree for its fruit. It has several varieties in cultivation, the most popular are the “carabao” and “piko,” and the former used to be the preferred export variety. The Guimaras mango is now considered the sweetest of mango varieties produced in the Philippines.
– Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
– Certainly introduced.
– In cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region.
– Now planted in all tropical countries.
– Mangiferin; mangin; piuri-yellow dye; benzoic acid; citric acid; tannin, 10%.
– The leaves contain 43-46 percent euxanthin acid and some euxanthon.
– Seed contains a fixed oil, oleostearin, starch, gallic acid, and tannin.
– The bark exudate yields a resin, gum, ash, and tannin.
– Study of fruit exudation, “chep” resin, isolated three products: a resin, mangiferene; a resinous acid, mangiferic acid; and a resinol (phenol), mangiferol .
– Mangostine, 29-hydroxymangiferonic acid, mangiferin and flavonoids have been isolated from the stem bark. Leaves and flowers yield an essential oil containing humulene, elemene, ocimene, linalool and nerol. (Source)
– Methanol extract of twigs yielded 4, 8Bishydroxymethyl7(1 hydroxy1methylethyl)1(3,4,6trihydroxy5
– Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins.
• Root, diuretic; bark, astringent; seeds, astringent and vermifuge; leaves, pectoral.
• Considered antiseptic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, cardiotonic and laxative.
• Seed kernel considered antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, antiviral against uropathogens.
• Ripe fruit considered invigorating, refreshing, fattening, slightly laxative, and diuretic.
• Rind, fiber, and unripe fruit considered astringent and acid. The pickled unripe fruit is considered stomachic and appetizing.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica (L.) / G S Bbosa et al / African Journal of Ecology • Volume 45 Issue s1, Pages 13 – 16 / DOI 0.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00731
(4) The activity of Mangifera indica L. leaf extracts against the tetanus causing bacterium, Clostridium tetani / Godfrey S Bbosa, Aloysium Lubega et al / African Journal of Ecology, Volume 45 Issue s3, Pages 54 – 58 / DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00858.x
(5) Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice / Neelam Makare et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 78, Issues 2-3, December 2001, Pages 133-137/ doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00326-9
(6) Antihyperglycaemic effect of Mangifera indica in rat / Aderibigbe A O et al / Phytother Res. 1999 Sep;13(6):504-7.
(7) Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia / L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 79, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 81-87 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00361-0
(8) Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats/ L Anila and N R Vijayalakshmi / Food Chemistry • Volume 83, Issue 4, December 2003, Pages 569-574 / doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00155-9
(9) Evaluation of anti-diarrhoeal activity in seed extracts of Mangifera indica / K Sairam et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 84, Issue 1, January 2003, Pages 11-15 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00250-
(10) Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats / Amrita Bhowmik et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4: 110-114
(11) Bioactive Studies of Mangifera indica aganist Bacteria Isolated from Urine Samples / S Sowmiya, P Soundarapandian and S Rajan / Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 1(3): 139-143, 2009
(12) Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica / Shivanna Yogisha, Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):76-79
(13) In vivo acute toxicological studies of an antioxidant extract from Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) / Gabino Garrido, Idania Rodeiro et al / Drug and Chemical Toxicology. January 2009, Vol. 32, No. 1 , Pages 53-58
(14) Spray Drying of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L (Vimang): Scale up for the Process / J Acosta-Esquijarosa et al / World Applied Sciences Journal 6 (3): 408-412, 2009
(15) Mangifera Indica (Mango) / A Review Article / Pharmacognosy Review, 2010, Vol 4, No 7, Pp 42-48.
(17) ANTIDIABETIC EFFICACY OF MANGIFERA INDICA SEED KERNELS IN RATS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH GLIBENCLAMIDE / Rajnish Gupta, R. S. Gupta / Diabetologia Croatica 40-4, 2011
(18) ISOLATION OF MANGIFERIN FROM LEAVES OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR ALPHONSO / K. BHUVANESWARI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 2, 2013
(19) Effects of Mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice / Sokindra Kumar, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari and Vijender Singh / Journal of Environmental Biology, July 2009, 30(4) 563-566.
(20) Effect of Aqueous Extract Mangifera Indica Leaves, as Functional Foods / Morsi, Reda M. Y.; EL-Tahan, N. R.; El-Hadad, Adel M. A. / Journal of Applied Sciences Research;Jun2010, Vol. 6 Issue 6, p712
(21) Cytotoxic effects of Mangifera indica L. kernel extract on human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and bioactive constituents in the crude extract / Al-Shwyeh Hussah Abdullah, Abdulkarim Sabo Mohammed*, Rasedee Abdullah, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani and Mothanna Al-Qubaisi / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:199 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-199
(22) Studies on Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Profile of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extract / Rajendra Prasad Bharti / IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Volume 7, Issue 3 (Nov. – Dec. 2013), PP 74-78
(23) Combination of Mangifera indica L. Extract Supplementation Plus Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study / Ana M. López Mantecón, Gabino Garrido*, René Delgado-Hernández andBárbara B. Garrido-Suárez / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 28, Issue 8, pages 1163–1172, August 2014 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5108
(24) Antihyperglycemic activity of Mangifera indica Linn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats / P. Kemasari, S. Sangeetha and P. Venkatalakshmi* / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):653-659
(25) Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica / Shivanna Yogisha*, Koteshwara Anandarao Raveesha / Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):76-79
(26) Study of mango biomass (Mangifera indica L) as a cationic biosorbent / *M. A. Ashraf; M. J. Maah; I. Yusoff / Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7 (3), 581-590, Summer 2010
(27) IMMUNOSTIMULATORY AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA STEM BARK ON DEXAMETHASONE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MALE RATS / UKPO GRACE*, OGBONNIA STEVE, EHIANETA TEDDY, BASHIR SHAKIRAT / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2013
(28) Anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract in a model of colitis / Lucía Márquez, Beatriz G Pérez-Nievas, Icíar Gárate, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal, Luis Menchén, Gabino Garrido, Juan C Leza / World J Gastroenterol 2010 October 21; 16(39): 4922-4931 / doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i39.4922
Edibility / Nutritional
– Good source of iron (deficient in calcium); excellent source of vitamins A, B, and C.
– Fruit contains citric, tartaric and mallic acids.
– Food: As fruit or mango-ade. Makes a delicious ice cream. Slice and served with cream and sugar, taste has slightly similarity to peaches. Mangoes are canned with syrup, dried and candied, jammed. Unripe mangoes are chutneyed, or pickled in brine.
– Young, fresh leaves are used in native dishes like “kasui.” Also, prepared as tea.
– In the Philippines, decoction of root is considered diuretic.
– Bark and seeds are astringent. In Cambodia, used in hot lotions for rheumatism and leucorrhea.
– In India and Cambodia, solution of the gum from the bark is swallowed for dysentery.
– Resin is used for aphthous stomatitis.
– Cough: Drink infusion of young leaves as needed.
– Diarrhea: Take decoction of bark or kernel as tea.
– Fluid extract, or infusion, used in menorrhagia, leucorrhea, hemorrhoidal bleeding, and hemorrhage from the lungs, nasal catarrh, and for lumbrici.
– Gum resin from the bark and fruit is used as sudorific; also as antisyphilitic.
– Root bark is a bitter aromatic, and in Sind, used for diarrhea and leucorrhea.
– Decoction of leaves with a little honey used for loss of voice.
– Gum resin from bark, mixed with coconut oil, used for scabies and other parasitic skin diseases.
– Juice of leaves used for dysentery.
– Tea of leaves with a little honey used for hoarseness and aphonia, 4 glasses daily.
– Powdered dried leaves, 1 tbsp to a cup of warm water, 4 times daily, used for diabetes. Also, decoction of 10-15 fresh mango leaves used for the same purpose.
– Ashes of burned leaves used for scalds and burns.
– Infusion of young leaves used in asthma and cough.
– Tea of powdered dried flowers, 4 times daily for diarrhea, urethritis.
– Juice of peel of unripe mangoes used for skin diseases.
– Seed is vermifuge and astringent.
– Seed is considered astringent, vermifuge; given in obstinate diarrhea and for bleeding piles.
– Kernel or stone from the green mango considered an anthelmintic.
– For asthma, bleeding piles, chronic dysentery, hematemesis, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, and round worms, powdered seed is given, with or without honey.
– In Indian traditional medicine, seeds used for vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea. Paste is made from seed, honey and camphor and applied over the vagina to make the vagina contracted and firm.
– Dye: Yellow coloring produced from the leaves, bark, and fruit, called “peori dye” in India.
• Review: Review article updating info on phytochemical and pharmacological activities indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other studies suggest other effects: antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, anti-bone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective.
• Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study showed that leaf extracts of M. indica possess some antibacterial activity against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and provides a basis for its medical use in Uganda. Phytochemical study showed saponins, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, anthracenocides, flavonones, tannins and reducing sugars.
• Hematologic benefits: Effects of Aqueous Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) Stem Bark on Haematological Parameters of Normal Albino Rats: Stem bark extracts of MI showed positive effects on the haemopoietic system of test rats.
• Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Hypoglycemic: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract: Results of the study support the folkloric use of the plant for painful arthritic and other inflammatory conditions, as well as T2DM.
• Anti-Clostridium tetany activity: Study showed both the ethereal and ethanolic fractions of leaf extracts showed anti-clostridium tetani activity.
• Anti-asthmatic: Mangifera indica stem bark effect on the rat trachea contracted by acetylcholine and histamine: Study showed MI blockage of histaminic and muscarinic receptors, supporting the traditional use of MI stem back in the treatment of asthma.
• Immunostimulant: Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice: Study showed increased humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice suggesting a potential for a drug with immunostimulant properties.
• Antihyperglycemic: Study showed leaf extract of MI possess hypoglycemic activity, possibly due to reduction in intestinal absorption of glucose.
• Flavonoids / Antihyperlipidemic Effect: Flavonoids from M indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats with induced-hyperlipidemia. Degradation and elimination of cholesterol were enhanced.
• Antioxidant: Oral administration of flavonoids showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The activities of free radical-scavenging enzymes were significantly elevated and lipid peroxide content was significantly reduced in flavonoid-treated hypercholesterolemic rats.
• Anti-diarrheal Activity: Study of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of M indica showed significant anti-diarrhea activity, the effect partly attributed to the effect on intestinal transit.
• Anti-Diabetic Activity: Study showed all extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.
• Ethnopharmacology / Mangiferin: Mangiferin is a major C-glucosylxanthone from the stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits of M indica and has been reported to have a variety of pharmacologic activities including antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, among others, supporting the numerous traditional uses of the plant.
• Polyphenols / Antiulcerogenic Activity: Study showed oral pretreatment with mangifera leaf decoction decreased the severity of gastric damage in induced-gastric lesions. Two main phenolic compounds isolated were mangiferin and C-glucosyl-benzophenone. The findings show the potential gastroprotective properties of the aqueous decoction from M indica leaves.
• Anti-Cancer / Polyphenols: A Texas Agrilife Research study by food scientists Dr. Susanne Talcott and Dr Steve Talcott found that polyphenol extracts from mango promote anticancer activity in certain colon and breast cancer cells in lab. The polyphenols also showed some effects on lung, leukemia and prostate cancers. Polyphenolics, more specifically gallotannins, belong to a class of bioactive compounds that can prevent of stop cancer cells. Further studies will look into efficacy and clinical relevance.
• Antibacterial: Bioactive studies of Mangifera indica against bacterial isolated from urine samples showed the aqueous and ethanolic seed kernel extract good antibacterial activity against E coli, S aureus and S pyogenes. The antibacterial activity may be due to specific phytochemical components. Toxic components were not detected in the seed kernel and also appear to be a safe source of antioxidants.
• Anti-Diabetic / Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Activity: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent addition to diabetes therapy, is metabolized by dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and inhibition of DDP IV enhance GLP-1 which improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Study on the methanolic extract of Mangifera indica leaves show the inhibitory effect on DPPIV and present a potential novel approach to diabetes therapy.
• Toxicological Studies / No Lethality : Study of stem-bark aqueous extract (MSBE), by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses, with no adverse effects. it was non-irritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. It also had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.
• Antidiabetic / Seed Kernels : Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potency of seed kernels of Mangifera indica ethanol extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed potent hypoglycemic activity. Possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action may be through potentiation of plasma insulin effect by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion from regenerated ß-cells or its discharge from bound insulin.
• Mangiferin / Leaves : Studies on mangiferin have shown antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, anti-HIV, antipyretic, anticancer, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective properties. The study isolated the pharmacologically active mangiferin using an uncomplicated method, with ethanol as solvent to obtain a crude extract.
• Memory-Enhancing / Fruit : Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of fruit on cognitive performances in step down passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze task in mice. Treatment reversed the aging and scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Results showed effects that are memory-enhancing in nature.
• Leaves as Functional Food: Study showed aqueous extract of mango leaves to be rich in total phenols and total flavonoids, and as powerful antioxidants should be used in manufacture processes of the natural products as function foods or as dietary supplement with antidiabetic activity and hypoglycemic effect.
• Cytotoxic Effect on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated the potential anticancer effects of an ethanolic kernel extract on breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). Results showed the extract to be more cytotoxic to both estrogen positive and negative breast cancer cell lines than to normal breast cells.
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated various leaf extracts for antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. The hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant inhibition of almost all tested pathogenic organisms.
• Combination Mangifera Extract and Methotrexate (MTX) in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Study evaluated the possible therapeutic effects and safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Only patients of MTX-Vimang group showed statistically significant improvement in DAS (disease activity score) 28 parameters. In the same group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs use.
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed decreased alloxan effect and improvement in the laboratory parameters, suggesting a potential benefit for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
• Antioxidant / Protective Against Lipofundin-Induced Oxidative Stress: Lipofundin is a lipid rich emulsion used in parenteral nutrition, known to induce an oxidative stress state characterized by increase lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidants. Study showed Vimang protects against Lipofundin-induced oxidative stress, reinforcing the antioxidant properties of the natural product.
• Antihyperglycemic / Leaves: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a recent treatment for type 2 diabetes, is metabolized by DDP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase IV). Inhibitors of DPP-IV enhance the level of GLP-1, which improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin secretion. Study showed a methanolic leaf extract to have potent in-vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity, and may present a novel addition to the treatment of diabetes.
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Various extracts of M. indica var. Thotapuri and M. indica var. Neelam were evaluated for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Results showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity.
• Cationic Biosorbent / Leaves: Study evaluated the efficacy of unfertilizable fruiting buds of the mango plant as biomass for biosorbent for the removal of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions. Results showed the non-living biomass of Mangifera indica present comparable biosorption capacity for lead, copper, zinc, and nickel metal ions and is effective in removing metal ions from single metal solutions.
• Immunostimulatory / Stem Bark: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of an ethanolic extract of M. indica stem bark in dexamethasone induced immunosuppressed male albino rats relative to immunoboosting effect of levamisole. Results showed a hepato-protective effect, a cholesterol lowering effect, and a stabilising tendency on the alanine aminotransferase concentrations.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Colitis Model: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in rats. Results showed anti-inflammatory properties with improvement of clinical signs, reduction of ulceration, and reduced MPO activity when administered before DSS.
– Small and large-scale planting for fruit production.