Family • Moraceae - Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco - JOHEY OAK
|Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco|
|Artocarpus tarap Becc.|
|Artocarpus mutabilis Becc.|
|Marang (Tag., Sulu)|
|Johey oak (Engl.)|
Other vernacular names
|BORNEO: Benturung, Jarap hutan.|
|INDONESIA: Pelah, Kiran, Kian, Kiang, Da’eng, kegheng, Monyet hutan.|
|MALAYSIA: Tarap, Terap.|
|THAILAND: Khanun sampalor.|
Marang is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 18 to 25 meters, sometimes with low buttresses. Twigs are 4 to 10 millimeters thick, with long, yellow to red, spreading hair and stipule-scar rings. Leaves are alternate, ovate, 7- to 9-lobed, the lobes lanceolate, glossy, dark green above, green below, stiff and petioled. Inflorescences occur in the leaf axils. Male flowers are minute, in stiff spikes. Female flowers are in conical heads. Fruit is subglobose, up to 20 centimeters in diameter, green yellow, densely covered with stiff, hairy processes about 1 centimeter long, borne at the end of long flexible branches, with a mass of seeds embedded in pulp. Fruit flesh is white, edible, juicy, and fragrant but strong-smelling edible pulp.
– Abundant in Mindanao, cultivated for its edible fruit.
– Also occurring in Mindoro, Basilan, and the Sulu Archipelago.
– Probably introduced from Borneo.
– In Borneo, common in the wild state.
– Usually cultivated for its edible fruit.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Artocarpus kemando and Artocarpus odoratissimus – two potential anticancer agents against LH60 and MCF7 cancer cell lines / 16th Malaysia Chemical Congress 2010.
(2) Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different parts of bambangan (Mangifera pajang) and tarap (Artocarpus odoratissimus) / Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Maryati Mohamed, Asmah Rahmat, Jeffrey Fry / Food Chemistry, 04/2009 / DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.081
(3) Chemical Constituents of Artocarpus altilis and Artocarpus odoratissimus./ Consolacion Y Ragasa*, Vincent Antonio Ng, Jea Hun Park, Dong Woo Kim, Kimberly Cornelio, and Chien-Chang Shen / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
(4) Artocarpus odoratissimus / T. K. Lim / Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 3, Fruits
By T. K. Lim / DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2534-8_45 / Google Books
(5) Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties of selected fruits endemic to Borneo: investigation on Mangifera pajang and Artocarpus odoratissimus / Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly (2010) / Nottingham eTheses
(6) Proximate analysis of Artocarpus odoratissimus (Tarap) in Brunei Darussalam / *Tang, Y. P., Linda, B. L. L. and Franz, L. W. / International Food Research Journal 20(1): 409-415 (2013)
(7) Adaptogenic activity of marang Artocarpus odoratissimus (blanco 1837) seed extract in male albino mice by anoxic tolerance test / Evander O. Buhisan, Tisha Grace L. Marquez / Herdin Record #: R07-USC-14031717022380
– Fruit is 24 to 33% of fresh fruit weight; 100 g of edible portion yields water 65.7 to 84.2 g, protein 0.8 to 1.47 g, fat 0.2 to 0.3 g, carbohydrates 32.4 g, ash 0.5 to 0.8 g, fiber 0.6 to 0.77g, calcium 17 mg, phosphorus 35 mg, iron 2.1 mg and vitamin C 30 mg.
– Crude protein from the seeds is higher than that found in other fruits.
– Study yielded a prenylated pyranoflavone derivative, artosimin.
– Dichloromethane extract of Artocarpus odoratissimus afforded ß-sitosterol and squalene, and unsaturated fatty acids from the flesh of the fruit and seeds; and ß-sitosterol, unsaturated fatty acids and hydrocarbons from the fruit rind.
– Analysis of minerals in flesh and seed yielded (in mg/100g): Potassium 176-298 (F), 352-443 (S); magnesium 15-31 (F), 103-132 (S); sodium 1.1-1.7 (F), 0.9-3.8 (S); calcium 0.5-1.4 (F), 1.5-3.0 (S); iron 0.3-0.5 (F), 0.8-1.2 (S); nickel 0.01-0.06 (F), 0.13-0.29 (S); cobalt 0.11-0.26 (F), 0.10-0.15 (S); manganese 0.02-0.93 (F), 0.27-8.64 (S); copper 0.39-0.67 (F),0.58-0.83 (S); zinc 0.17-0.45 (F), 0.71-1.83 (S); cadmium 0.0104-0.0149 (F), 0.0125-0.0172 (S).
– Proximate composition of flesh nutrient per 100g yielded: Moisture (%) 67.9-73.4; ash 0.6-0.8 g; carbohydrate 12.0-25.2 g; protein 1.31-1.52 g; fiber 0.90-1.13 g; fat 0.2-0.3 g (wet basis), energy 90.7-100.6 kcal.
– Fruit is esteemed for its sweet, juicy, aromatic perianths surrounding the seeds. with a flavor similar to jackfruit. Used as ingredient for cakes.
– Seeds are roasted or boiled, yielding a delicious nutty flavor.
– Young fruit also cooked in coconut milk and eaten as curried vegetable.
– No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
– Ibans in Sarawak drink root decoction for diarrhea. Ash from leaves applied on scorpion stings and centipede bites. Mixed with a little coconut oil, the ash is used for scabies and kuris.
– Ritual: In the Iban community in Sarawak, leaves are hang on the door to drive away evil spirits from entering the premises to steal men’s testicles.
• Artosimin / Anticancer / Antioxidant:: Study yielded a new prenylated pyranoflavone derivative, artosimin, together with traxateryl acetate. Artosimin was found to be significantly cytotoxic against cancer cell lines (HL60 and MCF7)and also showed to have strong antioxidant property on the DPPH assay.
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the flesh, kernel and peel from M. pajang and seed and flesh from A. odoratissimus for total antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins contents. The phytochemical and antioxidant properties of M. pajang and A. odoratissimus, especially their kernel/seed by-products indicate they may impart health benefits when consumed and should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidant-rich nutraceuticals.
• Antioxidant / Flesh and Seed: Study investigated the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of two fruits endemic to Borneo Island: Mangifera pajang (bambangan) and Artocarpus odoratissimus (tarap). The kernel of M. pajang extract displayed strongest antioxidant activity as assessed DPPH and FRAP assays, followed by M. pajang peel, A. odoratissmus seed, M. pajang flesh and A. odoratissmus flesh.
• Adaptogenic / Seed: Study evaluated dried seed extract of Artocarpus odoratissimus for adaptogenic activity using anoxic tolerance test with male Albino mice. Extract prolonged the time of convulsion and minimized the increase of biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides). Results suggest the seed extract may be explored as an adaptogenic agent.