Family • Schizaeceae / Lygodiaceae - Lygodium flexuosum Swartz. - MAIDENHAIR CREEPER
|Lygodium flexuosum Swartz.|
|Lygodium pinnatifidum Hook. et Baker *|
|Lygodium pilosum Desv..|
|Lygodium serrulatum Blume|
|Ophioglossum flexuosum L.|
|Qu zhou hai jin sha (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|BENGALI: Miau-maka-la, Kuttijurkha, Huttigurpo.|
|MALAYSIA: Ribu-ribu besar, ribu-ribu gajah, akar sidin|
|Nito nga purao (Ilk.)|
|Climbing fern (Engl.)|
|Maidenhair creeper (Engl.)|
Lygodium flexuosum is a climbing or scrambling fern. The dwarfed branches are up to 3 millimeters long. Pinnae are pinnate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, and sometimes bipinnate in the lower part. Pinnules are stalked, finely serrate, otherwise entire lanceolate or more commonly lobed on both sides at the base, 4 to 10 centimeters long; the fertile pinnae are shorter than the sterile one. Spikes are 2 to 10 millimeters long. Spores are verruculose.
– Common and widely distributed, especially in open places in the Philippines.
– Also found throughout the tropics of the Old World.
– Plant yields antheridiogens, O-P-coumaryldryocrassol, tectoquinone, kaempferil, kaemferol-3-beta-D-glucosdie, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as main constituents. Main constituent is lygodinolide, used mainly for wound healing.
– Roots yield flavonoids, quercetin, and pentahydroxyflavone-3-O-rutinoside.
– Rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and coumarin.
– Study yielded saponins (27.6%), bitter principles, sterols, and triterpene alcohols.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Protective effect of Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats / P J Wills, V V Asha / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • 01/01/2007; 108(3):320-6 / DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.032
(2) TRADITIONAL USES OF PLANTS OF COMMONLAND HABITATS IN WESTERN CHITWAN, NEPAL / D R Dangol / J. Inst. Agric. Anim. Sci. 29:71-78 (2008)
(3) Antiangiogenic effect of Lygodium flexuosum against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats / PJ Wills, V Suresh et al / Chemico-Biological Interactions, Vol 164, Issues 1-2, 1 December 2006, Pages 25-38 / doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2006.08.021
(4) CORRELATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY WITH PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ISOLATION OF
ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUND FROM LYGODIUM FLEXUOSUM (L.) SW. EXTRACTS / Nehete Jeetendra, Bhatia Manish / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 2, 2011
(5) Preventive and curative effect of Lygodium flexuosum (L.) Sw. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis in rats / PJ Willis and VV Asha / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 107, Issue 1, 11 August 2006, Pages 7-11 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.01.031
(6) Studies on plants used in traditional medicine by Bhilla tribe of Maharashtra / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9 (3), July 2010, pp 591-598.
(7) Lygodium flexuosum / DNA of Siingapore
(8) A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn / Esha Yadav, Munesh Mani, Phool Chandra, Neetu Sachan, and A. K. Ghosh / Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jul-Dec; 6(12): 107–114. / doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.99944
(9) Acute and subacute toxicity studies of Lygodium flexuosum extracts in rats / Pallara J Wills, Velikkakathu V Asha / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2012)S200-S202
(10) A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY & ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY OF LYGODIUM FLEXUOSUM, A CLIMBING FERN / BISWADEEP DAS*, YOGESH P. TALEKAR, KISHORI. G. APTE AND RAJENDRA CHAUHAN / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 4, No 4, 2012
Roots and leaves.
– Young fronds eaten as vegetable.
– In Nepal, during times of scarcity, Chitwan people use it as vegetable sustenance.
– Roots and leaves used externally for ringworm and other skin ailments.
– Elsewhere, plant is used in treatment of blenorrhagia.
– In Indian traditional medicine, used for jaundice and liver disorders. Also used for dysmenorrhea, wound healing, and eczema.
– Kadar tribes of the Western Ghats of India use a leaf paste to cure jaundice.
– The Maharashtra tribe in India smoke bidi made of roots for rheumatism and arthritis; also, fresh roots boiled with mustard oil used for massage. Bidi also smoked for bleeding gums, bad breath, sprains, scabies, rheumatism, as antifertility and abortifacient, for jaundice and wound healing.
– In Malaysia, used externally for ringworm.
– In Vietnam, applied to wounds after mashing; also used as diuretic.
– In Nepal, plant ash used for herpes.
• Animals: Plant fed to domestic animals to treat foot and mouth diseases.
• Basketry / Ties: Wiry rachises are used for plaiting and weaving to make hats, baskets, boxes, and bags. Also used to tie rice sheaths in the fields.
• Hepatoprotective Effect: Rats treated with extracts of Lygodium flexuosum after establishment of carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury showed significant protection of the liver as evidenced by AST, ALT, LDH and MDA levels. Phytochemical study yielded saponins, triterpenes, sterols and bitter principles which could explain the possible hepatoprotective action. Results suggest L. flexuosum exerts effective protection in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
• Chemopreventive Effect / Antiproliferative/ Apoptotic: Study showed L flexuosum extract has antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in cancer cells and has inhibitory role in TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation in PLC/PRF/5 cells confirming its potential as a chemopreventive agent.
• Antiangiogenic / Hepatoprotective: Study of antiangiogenic effect of L. flexuosum in NDEA-intoxicated Wistar rats in preventive and curative models showed the LFE reversed the hepatoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in both experimental models.
• Phenolic Content / Antioxidant: In vitro antioxidant activity of different extracts of LF were evaluated in different models. Highest phenolic content was found in the methanolic extract (6.24%) with the highest antioxidant activity.
• Antifertility Activity: Alcoholic extract showed an antifertility effect in rats, mice, and rabbits.
• Antibacterial: Rhizome extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to the petiole and leaf. The rhizome extracts were more effective against gram-positive bacteria like M. luteus and S. aureus compared to gram negative bacteria.
• Toxicity Testing: Extracts were found to be devoid of any toxicity in acute and subacute toxicity testing in rats.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study of ethanolic extract in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antioxidant and radical scavenging activities at various concentrations.