Orchid tree

Family • Caesalpiniaceae - Bauhinia variegata Linn. - POOR MAN'S ORCHID - Yang ti jia

Scientific names

Bauhinia variegata Linn.
Bauhinia candida Ait.

Common names

Butterfly tree (Engl.) Kanchnar (India/Sanskrit)
Koiralo (India, Nepal) Orchid tree (Engl.)
Mountain ebony (Engl.) Poor man’s orchid (Engl,)
Red flowered bauhinia (Engl.) Yang ti jia (Chin./Taiwan)
Kachnar (India/Hindi)

Gen info
Bauhinia is a genus of more than 200 species. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists. The leaves share the double-leaf configuration of a heart, or more popularly, that of a butterfly. (Also see: Alibangbang / Bauhinia malabarica)

The Hongkong orchid tree (Bauhinia blakeana is named after one of the British Governors of Hongkong, Sir Henry Blake, 1898-1903) and is now the floral emblem of Hongkong. The flower looks like an orchid, and thus has earned the name “Orchid Tree.” It is usually sterile, and debated as of hybrid origin between Bauhinia variegata and Bauhinia purpurea.

Botany
Bauhinia variegata is a moderate sized deciduous tree growing to a height of 10 meters or more. Leaves are alternate and lobed to one-third of their length, heart-shaped at the base with a deep cleft that divides the apex. Flowers are in short racemes, faintly fragrant, petals broad and overlapping, lavender to purple or white. Pods are long, narrow, flattened,10 to 15 centimeters by 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters, containing 5 to 10 seeds.

Distribution
Ornamental.

Parts used
Bark, leaves, flowers, roots.

Constituents
– Yields flavonoids:quercetin, rutin, apigenin and apigenin 7-O-glucoside.
– Phytoscreening reported flavonoids, lectin and albumin.
– Stem yields sitosterol, lupeol, kaempferol-3-glucoside and 5,7-dihydroxy and 5,7-dimethoxy flavanone-4-O–L-rhamnopyranosyl–Dglucopyranosides.
– Flowers contain cyanidine-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-diglucoside, and peonidin
3-diglucoside, kaempferol-3-galactoside and kaempferol-3- rhamnoglucoside.
– Root bark yielded a new flavanone: (2S)–5,7-dimethoxy-3′- 4′ -methylene dioxyf lavanone and a new dihydrobenzoxepin 5,6-dihydro-1,7dihydroxy-3,4- 2,3 dimethoxy-2-methyldibenz (b,f) oxepin.

Properties
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anthelmintic.
Bark is alterative, astringent and tonic.

Uses
Culinary
In India, flower buds used as a vegetable dish.

Folkloric
– Not used medicinally in the Philippines.
– Elsewhere the bark is used for the treatment of skin diseases, scrofula and ulcers.
– Bark used to treat obesity and diarrhea.
– The dried buds are used in the treatment of piles, dysentery, diarrhea and worms.
– Root is used as an antidote to snake poison.
– Decoction of the root used for dyspepsia.
– In India, powdered bark used as tonic, for strains, ulcers, skin disease. Also, extracts of bark used for treatment of cancer. Roots used for dyspepsia and as antidote for snake bites.
– In Ayurveda, plant pacifies vitiated kapha, diarrhea, skin diseases, rectal prolapse, diabetes, inflammation, worms, tumors, piles, menorrhagia, hemoptysis, and cervical lymphadenopathy.
– Roots used as antidote to snake poison.

Study Findings
• Analgesic / Antiinflammatory: A study showed that the aqueous extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves possesses potential pharmacologic activities that confirms the folkloric use of the plant for use in pain and inflammation.
• Antibacterial: Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegata L. bark: Defatted acetone and methanol extracts showed the most antibacterial activity.
• Antibacterial: The aqueous and methanol extracts of 12 plants from different families was studied for antibacterial activity against B cereus, S epidermis, E aerogenes, P vulgari and S typhimurium. Among the plant screened, B variegata bark showed the best antibacterial activity. (12)
• Antiinflammatory: Study isolated six flavonoids and one triterpene caffeate. The seven compound significantly and dose-dependently inhibited function involved in the inflammatory proceses. Results support the folkloric use of BV in its use for inflammatory conditions.
• Antiinflammatory / Flavonol Glycoside: Study yielded a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1–>3)-)-beta-galactopyranoside from the root which showed anti-inflammatory activity.
• Hepatoprotective: Hepatoprotective Properties of Bauhinia variegata Bark Extract: In carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats, extract of stem bark of Bv showed significant hepatoprotective actisvity and a promising agent for that purpose.
• Chemopreventive / Cytotoxic: Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines: Results showed chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of BV against induced DEN liver tumor and human cancer lines.
• Antitumor / Cytotoxic: Ethanol extract of B variegata evaluated against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice showed significant enhancement of survival time and reverse hematologic parameters consequent to tumor inoculation.
• Antioxidant / Antihyperlipidemic: Study of alcoholic and aqueou extract of Bv effectively decreased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and increase HDL levels and also showed significant antioxidant activity. EBV was found to be a potent cytotoxic toward EAC tumor cell.
• Pharmacognosy / Phytochemicals: Study yielded steroid, saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins.
• Immunomodulatory: Study on the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bv showed significant increase in the primary and secondary humoral antibody response and show promise as an immunomodulatory agent, probably through stimulation of both the specific and nonspecific arms of immunity.
• Immunomodulatory: Study evaluating the immunomodulatory activity of stem bark extracts showed predominantly significant activity on in vitro human neutrophils in all parameters. Results suggested a possible immunostimulating effect.
• Anti-Diabetic: Study showed the presence of insulin-like properties in the leave of Bv. The activity of this insulin-like protein on serum glucoe levels in diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used a control.
• Antihelmintic: Study showed significant anthelmintic activity by methanolic extract of B variegata against both mature male and female Haemonchu contortus.
• Hypolipidemic: Study of extracts of bark of Bauhinia variegata showed significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. The HDL increase was not significant.
• Anti-Obesity Effect: Study of root extract showed an anti-obesity activity attributed to its hypophagic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect.
• Nephroprotective / Antioxidant: Study of ethanol and aqueous roots extracts in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats showed significant nephroprotective activity. Antioxidant activity was shown on a DPPH assay model.
• Chemopreventive: Study of B. variegata bark in mice showed a chemopreventive potential against DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis.
• Antimutagenic: Study of bark extract B. variegata showed a preventive potential against cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus formation in Swiss mouse bone marrow cells.
• Antipyretic: Study of ethanolic extract showed antipyretic activity probably through inhibitionof prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.
• Anti-Eosinophilic: Study of aqueous and ethanl extracts of BV against milk-induced leucocytosis and eosinophic in mice showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in total leucocyte and eosinophil counts suggesting an antieosinophilic activity.
• Anti-Ulcer / Analgesic: Study of root extracts showed significant dose-dependent analgesic and significant anti-ulcer activity. The activities were attributed to the presence of flavonoids.
• Chemopreventive / Cytotoxic: Study of ethanol extract of BV showed significant chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect against DEN (N-nitrosodiethylamine)-induced liver tumor and human cancer cell lines.
• Antioxidant: Study showed the extract of leaves of G. pentaphylla and Bauhinia variegata inhibited free radical scavenging activity. The effect was attributed to flavonoids, phenolics and other phytochemical constituents.
• Antipyretic: Study of ethanolic extracts of B. variegata and Glcosmis pentaphylla exhibited significant antipyretic activities in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Activity was attributed to inhhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.
• Chemopreventive / DBMA-induced Skin Carcinogenesis: Study investigated the anticarcinogenic activity of B. variegata bark extract in a skin papilloma model in Swiss albino mice. Results showed a chemopreventive role for bark extracts against DBMA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice with decrease in rate of tumor incidence, number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of leaves, barks, and roots using three in vivo animal models: carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellets induced granuloma formation, and adjuvant induced arthritis in rat. An ethanol extract and petroleum ether extract demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in the three bioassays.
• Analgesic / Antifungal / Cytotoxic: Study investigating an ethanolic extract of the plant showed analgesci activity by eddy’s hot plate method, in vitro cytotoxicity against DLA cells lines by Typan blue assay method, and good antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.
• Radical Scavenging / Natural Antioxidant: Study of leaf, stem bark, floral buds extracts showed remarkable concentration dependent free radical scavenging and reducing power. Results suggest a potential source of natural antioxidant.
• Antimicrobial / Anticancer Activities: Study evaluated extracts of B. variegata generated through in vivo and in vitro processes for antibacterial and anticancer activities. Activity was greater against gram positive bacteria compared to gram negative bacterial. In vitro cytotoxicity screening showed inhibition of EAC mouse cell lines.

Availability
Ornamental cultivation.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Evaluation of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Bauhinia variegata L. bark

(2) Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Properties of the Aqueous Extract
of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves in Experimental Animals

(3) Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma / B Rajkapoor et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 89, Issue 1, November 2003, Pages 107-109 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00264-2

(4) Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn./ Yadava R N and Reddy V M / Nat Prod Res. 2003 Jun;17(3):165-9 /

(5) Hepatoprotective Properties of Bauhinia variegata Bark Extract / Surendra Bodakhe and Alpana Ram / YAKUGAKU ZASSHI • Vol. 127 (2007) , No. 9 1503-1507

(6) Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn / M M Ghaisas et al / Int J Green Pharm 2009;3:70-4

(7) Antibacterial and phytochemical studies on twelve species of Indian medicinal plants / Jigna Parekh and Sumitra Chanda / African Journal of Biomedical Research • Vol 10: 175-181, 2007

(8) Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice / Ravindra G Mali, Avinash S Dhake / J Adv Pharm Tech Res, 2011;2:132-4 / DOI: 10.4103/2231-4040.82949

(9) Analgesic and Anti-Ulcer Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Extracts of Roots of Bauhinia variegata Linn. / Yanni R Kumar and G P Rajani / Intern Journ of Pharmacology 7(5):616-622, 2011

(10) Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell line / B. Rajkapoor, B. Jayakar, N. Murugesh and D. Sakthisekaran /Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 104, Issue 3, 6 April 2006, Pages 407-409 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.074

(11) Effect of Bauhinia Variegate Bark Extract on DMBA-Induced Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis: A Preliminary Study / Sonam Pandey and R.C. Agrawal / Global Journal of Pharmacology, 3 (3): 158-162, 2009 ISSN 1992-0075 © IDOSI Publications, 2009

(12) Analgesic, Antifungal and In-Vitro Cell Cytotoxic Studies of Bauhinia Variegata Bark Extract / Shyamkumar B*, Ishwar Bhat K / AJPTR, American Journal of PharmTech Research

(13) International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012 1 ISSN 2250-3153 In-Vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Bauhinia Variegata Linn / Sonam Pandey*, R. C. Agrawal* and S. Maheshwar / International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012 1