Family • Family - Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr.

Scientific names

Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr.
Ficus arenata Elmer (Illegitimate)

Common names

Isis (Tag.)
Pakiling (Tag.)


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. / The Plant List

(2) Chemical constituents of Ficus odorata / Tsai, P.-W.; Castro-Cruz, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiou, C.-T.; Ragasa, C. / Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal;Jul2012, Vol. 46 Issue 4, p225

(3) Prooxidant Effect of the Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. in vitro: It’s Medical Significance / Librado A. Santiago, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology / International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering Vol:8 No:1, 2014

Pakiling is a small tree reaching a height of nine meters, with young hispidous, greeninsh branchlets. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong or broadly ovtae and rounded, 16 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 centimeters wide, acuminate at the apex, cordately inequilateral, margins toothed, lateral veins 6 to 8 pairs, prominent underneath, base penta- to octa-veined, venation semicraspedodromous. Young branches are greenish, pubescent, petiole 1.0 to 1.2 centimeters long.

– Endemic in the Philippines.
– Widely cultivated in Tayabas, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, and Laguna in Luzon.

– Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded l -sitosteryl-3ß-glucopyranoside-6′- O-palmitate, squalene, lutein , α-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, and ß-carotene.
– Phytochemical screening yielded terpenes, glycosides, and phenolic acids. Crude extract yielded low gallic acide and quercetin equivalence.


– Dried leaves are fragrant.

– Used in the treatment of allergy, asthma, diarrhea, diabetes, tumor and cancer.

Study Findings
• Cytotoxicity / Human Stomach Adenocarcinoma Cell Line: Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded 6 compounds. Compound 1 (l -sitosteryl3ß-glucopyranoside-6′- O-palmitate) showed cytotoxicity against human stomach adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with 60.28% growth inhibition.
• Teratogenicity: Study of investigated leaf extracts of Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. and Baccaurea tetrandra (Baill) for teratogenic/antiteratogenic potential in inbred strain of ICR mice. Results showed a strong potential for F. odorata, with a high frequency of congenital abnormalities in the fetuses of mice treated with crude leaf extracts. Both plants did not show antiteratogenic activity.
• Pro-Oxidant Activity: Study evaluated F. odorata for potential medical application for its pro-oxidant activity. Pro-oxidant activity was evident in the crude ethanolic leaf extract. Results suggest F. odorata can be tapped as functional food and nutraceutical and drug development.