Pakong-gubat

Family • Polypodiaceae / Adiantaceae - Pityrogramma calomelanos (Linn.) Link. - SILVER FERN


Scientific names

Acrostichum calomelanos (L.)
Ceropteris calomelanos (Underw.)
Gymnogramme calomelas Link
Neurogramme calomelanos Diels
Pityrogramma calomelanos (Linn.) Link
Fen ye jue (Chin.)

Common names

Pakong-gubat (Tag.)
Pakong-kalabao
Silverback fern (Engl.)
Silver fern (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

SPANISH: Elecho de plata.

Botany
Pakong-gubat is a wild and exotic fern. Rhizomes are stout, erect and oblique, with brown scales. Stipes are tufted, angular, brown to black, polished, and 5 to 30 centimeters long. The fronds are 3-pinnatifid, 10 to 90 centimeters long and 5 to 30 centimeters wide, when well developed, and easily recognized by their white or yellowish bottom surface. Pinnae are close linear-lanceolate in shape, 2 to 5 centimeters wide. Sori are linear and forked, at length occupying the entire lower surface of the lobes.

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Distribution
– In the provinces of Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Camarines Provinces and Manila in Luzon; and from Mindoro, Panay and Mindanao.
– Also found in Tropical America and West Africa.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Arsenic hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata and Pityrogramma calomelanos: a comparative study of uptake efficiency in arsenic-treated soils and waters / Yong JW, Tan SN et al / Water Sci Technol. 2010;61(12):3041-9.

(2) Five complex flavonoids in the farinose exudate of Pityrogramma calomelanos / Munekazu Linuma, Toshiyuki Tanaka et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 31, Issue 7, July 1992, Pages 2487-2490
/ doi:10.1016/0031-9422(92)83306-

(3) Phytoremediation potential of Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana at a highly variable arsenic contaminated site – short-term data / Nabeel K, Niazi, Balwant Singh et al / Internation Journal of Phytoremediation, 13(9): 912-932, 2011.

(4) Cytotoxic and tripanocide activities of Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) link. / Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Universidade Regional do Cariri URCA, Crato-CE, Brasil. Rua Cal. Antonio Luis 1161, Pimenta, 63105-000. E-mail: teogenesms@yahoo.com.br / The Free Library

(5) ENHANCEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBIOTICS AND ANTIFUNGALS BY THE USE OF NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM PITYROGRAMMA CALOMELANOS (L.) LINK. / TEÓGENES M SOUZA, MARIA FB MORAIS-BRAGA, JOSÉ GM COSTA, ANTÔNIO AF SARAIV3 and HENRIQUE D.M. COUTINHO* / Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 64 (1), 43-48, 2012 DOI:10.2298/ABS1201043S

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Constituents
– Studies yielded complex flavonoids, including four flavanones, calomelanols G, H, I and J.

Properties
– Considered astringent, analgesic, anti-hemorrhagic, pectoral, depurative, emmenagogue, antipyretic, antitussive.

Parts utilized
Whole plant.

Uses
Folkloric
• Decoction of the plant with roots of Cynodon dactylon and styles of Zea mays is used for kidney afflictions.
• Whole plant used for kidney troubles.
• In Trinidad and Tobago, used for urinary problems and high cholesterol.

Others
• In New Guinea used as urban ornamental; tips of fronds used in head-dress.

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Study Findings
• Cytotoxicity Screening: Screening of 11 ferns for cytotoxic and antitumor potential with special reference to Pityrogramma calomelanos.
• Dihydrochalcone: its farina produces the cytotoxic and anticancer compound dihydrochalcone.
• Uptake Efficiency in Arsenic-Treated Soils and Water: Arsenic is a ubiquitous trace metalloid widely distributed in the environment, contributed to by metal smeltering, mine tailings, and arsenic pesticides. A comparative study of arsenic efficiency uptake by Pteris vittata and P. calomelanos in amended soils and tainted water showed P. calomelanos to perform better than P. vittata. The presence of high levels of arsenic (As) i rice is significant as it is an important world food staple. Even baby rice products are reported to contain levels of inorganic As exceeding safe standards. Ferns are able to “compete” against rice plants, reducing the amount of As that reaches the rice plants. Study predicts
• Complex Flavonoids in the Farinose Exudate: Study yielded five new complex flavonoids from the farinose exudate of Pityrogramma calomelanos – calomelanos F-J.
• Phytoremediation Potential / Arsenic-Contaminated Soil: A comparative study predicts P. calomelanos var. austroamerican will take approximately 100 years to reduce the total As to below 20 mg/kg-1 compared to ¥200 years for P vittata.
• Antiepimastigote / Chagas Disease: Study investigated the antiepimastigoe activity of an ethanol and hexane fraction of P. calomelanos against T. cruzi (CL-B5 clone). Results showed tripanocidal activity and suggests a potential source of antiepimastigote natural product with only moderate toxicity toward healthy human cells.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated an ethanol extract and methanol fraction of P. calomelanos for antimicrobial and modulatory activities against various bacterial and fungal strains. Results showed good activity against S. aureus when associated with aminoglycosides and against species of Candida when associated with benzoilmetronidazol. Results showed direct and modulating activity, enhancing the antimicrobial activity of drugs and combating microbial resistance.

Availability
Wild-crafted.