Panapanarahan

Family • Fabaceae / Leguminosae - PAYANG-PAYANG - Flemingia strobilifera (Linn.) R. Br. - WILD HOPS - Qiu sui qian jin ba


Scientific names

Flemingia strobilifera (Linn.) R. Br.
Hedysarum strobiliferum Linn.
Moghania fruticulosa
Moghania strobiliferum

Other vernacular names

BANGLADESH: Mandipata.
CHINESE: Da bao ye qian jin ba, Ban guan mu qian jin ba, Qui sui hua qian jin ba.
FRENCH: Sainfoin de Bengale.
INDIA: Kusrunt, Simbusak, Bundar, Kanaphuti, Adakkamaniyan.
MALAYSIA: Seringan, Meringan.
NEPALESE: Grop muja, Jyugar, Ghan mamarkha, Barkuali jhar, Ghans, Duware, Gahate, Miranche, Swata.
PALAUAN: Besungelaiei, Pesungel a iei.
SRI LANKA: Ham-pinna.
VIETNAMESE: Top mo bong tron, Duoi chon, Top mo co choi, Dau ma hoa non.

Common names

Adoteid (Ig.)
Gangan (S. L. Bis.)
Kaliakai (Chab.)
Kopa-kopa (Pang.)
Kopkopeyes (Ilk.)
Kupau-kupau (Sbl.)
Pakayan (Pamp.)
Panapanalahan (Tag.)
Panapanarahan (Tag.)
Paking (Tag.)
Payang-payang na babae (Tag.)
Payang-payang (Tag.)
Piragan (Sul.)
Tabang-bayawak (Tag.)
Kidney bush (Engl.)
Luck plant (Engl.)
Wild hops (Engl.)
Qiu sui qian jin ba (Chin.)

Botany
Panapanarahan is an erect, branched shrub, growing to a height of 0.5 to 2 meters. Leaves are simple, ovate to oblong, 6 to 14 centimeters in length, round at the base, pointed at the tip. Racemes are terminal, at the axils of the leaves, 5 to 15 centimeters long, composed of numerous, thin, rounded or kidney-shaped, folded, imbricated, green bracts, about 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long, enclosing the fascicles or dwarfed cymes of small flowers. Rachis of the racemes are zigzag. Corolla is yellowish-green, with a tinge of purple, about 8 millimeters long. Pods are swollen, oblong, 1 centimeter long, containing 2 seeds.

Panapanarahan

Distribution
– Abundant throughout the Philippines in settled areas, in open, dry, waste places.
– Probably introduced.
– Also occurs in India to Malaya, Mauritius and the West Indies.

Constituents
– Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins and amino acids.
– Phytochemical screening of root and leaf showed phytosterols, lipids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins.
– Yields flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, chalcones, epoxychromenes and pterocarpans.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) A New Flavanone from Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. and its Antimicrobial Activity / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research • March 2008; 7 (1): 921-927 / S Madan, G N Singh, Y Kumar et al

(2) Anthelmintic Activity of Flemingia strobilifera (R.Br) / Anil Kumar, Jyotsna Dora, Kavita Gahlot and Rishikant Tripathi / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 2 (3) Jul – Sep 2011

(3) Phytochemical analysis and free-radical scavenging activity of Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. / Swati Madan, Gyanendra Nath Singh, Yatendra Kumar, Kanchan Kohli / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences

(4) Flemingia strobilifera / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(5) Comparative morpho-anatomical and Preliminary Phytochemical studies of Flemingia strobilifera (L.) R.Br and Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr (Fabaceae) / Kavita Ghalot*, V.K. Lal, S.Jha / Int.J.PharmTech Res.2012,4(1)

(6) ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF FLEMINGIA STROBILIFERA (R.Br / ) / Anil Kumar٭, Kavita Gahlot, Jyotsna Dora and Pankaj Singh / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PHARMACY AND CHEMISTRY, 2011, 1(4)

(7) Phytochemical analysis and free-radical scavenging activity of Flemingia strobilifera (Linn) R. Br. / Swati Madan*, Gyanendra Nath Singh, Yatendra Kumar, Kanchan Kohli / Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 1(4), Oct-Dec 2010

(8) Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Flemingia strobilifera linn. Fabaceae / Mohd. A Tauqeer*, PR Itankar / Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2009, Vol 2, No 4.

(9) Medicinal plants used for treating body pain by the tribals in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala, India / Binu S / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol. 10 (3), July 2011, pp. 547-549

(10) Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root / Kavita Gahlot, Vijay Kumar Lal, and Shivesh Jha / Pharmacognosy Res. 2013 Oct-Dec; 5(4): 265–270 /
doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.118825

(11) Effect of Flemingia strobilifera Linn. (Payang-payang) extract on blood cholesterol levels of albino mice / Kate Lani Rae G Quevedo*, Hannah Rachel S Mia and Jonnacar / INT J CURR SCI 2015, 14: E 37-43

Panapanarahan2

Parts utilized 
Leaves, flowers.

Panapanarahan3

Uses
Folkloric
· Decoction or infusion of leaves and flowers used for tuberculosis.
· Decoction of leaves used for postpartum baths. (See: Suob)
· In India, root paste applied externally to body swellings. Roots also used for epilepsy.
· In Malaya, decoction of leaves administered after childbirth and for bathing.
· Decoction of leaves used for rheumatism.
· In Java, decoction of leaves used internally and externally as vermifuge for children.
· In Bangladesh leaf juice used to treat worms.
· In Nepal, Root juice (fresh roots crushed in cup of water by mortar and pestle) is taken twice daily for 7 days for diarrhea and dysentery. source
· In Trinidad and Tobago, used for kidney problems.
· In India leaves and flowers used for tuberculosis. Roots used for hysteria, root juice for diarrhea and dysentery.
· In India, cut fresh leaves boiled in coconut oil till the green turns to black, allowed to cool and applied as medicated oil half an hour before baths for problems associated with body pains.

Others
· In the Philippines, dried bracts used for stuffing pillows and cushions.

Panapanarahan4

Study Findings
• Antibacterial: Out of twenty-five species of ethnomedicinal plants were screened for their antibacterial activity, 13, including F strobilifera, showed positive response to at least one of the tested bacteria. F strobilifera showed positive response to two bacterial species.
• Antimicrobial / Flemingiaflavanone: The study isolated flemingiaflavanone which showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria ( S epidermis, S aureus, MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria (P aeruginosa, E coli) and fungi (C albicans).
• Isoflavone / Antibacterial / Antioxidant: Study yielded a new isoflavone from the roots of FS and was identified as 5,7,4í-trihydroxy 8,2í,5í-tri(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavone along with other known phytoconstituents. The compounds were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity and compounds (1-3) proved to be moderately active.
• Phagocyte Stimulation / Immune Regulation: Study showed F strobilifera as an herbal medicine that can stimulate phagocytosis and have a potential to enhance innate immunity medications.
• Anti-Ulcerogenic / Antimicrobial: Study showed pretreatments of a chloroform extract of F. strobilifera reduced the characteristic water immersion-induced stress ulcer lesions in female wistar rats. Free radical scavenging was observed. Antimicrobial activity of the CE was observed against both gram positive and negative bacteria.
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves of FS for anthelmintic activity. Results showed the alcohol and chloroform extracts to exhibit significant anthelmintic activity. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug.
• Antioxidant: Phytochemical screening showed high flavonols and phenolics. A methanolic extract of root and leaf showed a concentration dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity. A butanolic and DCM extract showed good nitric oxide scavenging activity. Results suggest FS as a potential source of natural antioxidant.
• Analgesic: A methanol extract evaluated for analgesic activity in mice by tail flick latency in immersion method showed potent analgesic activity in all test doses. Acetylsalicylic acid was used as standard drug.
• Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Root and Leaf: Study evaluated various extracts of root and leaf for antioxidant activity. Using various assays, a methanolic extract showed antioxidant activity and suggests a potential source of natural antioxidants.
• Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Study evaluated methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts for anti-inflammatory effects in Swiss albino mice. Results showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma methods.
• Anticonvulsant / Roots: Study evaluated the anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and fractions of roots against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. Results showed a crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of roots have a central nervous system depressant action, with a potential anticonvulsant effect.
• Cholesterol Lowering: Study evaluated the cholesterol lowering effect of various extracts of FS in albino mice. Results showed all treatments (leaf, root, and stem extracts) are capable of significantly reducing the blood cholesterol levels in mice.

Availability
Wild-crafted.