Pandakaking-Tsina

Family • Apocynaceae - Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) E. Br. - CRAPE JASMINE - Gou ya hua

Scientific names

Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) E. Br.
Nerium divaricatum Linn.
Tabernaemontana coronaria Willd.

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Gou ya hua.
GUJARATI: Sagar.
HINDI: Tagar, Tagari, Nandi battalu.
MARATHI: Ananta, Tagar.

Common names

Rosa de hielo (Span.)
Pandakaking-Tsina (Tag.)
Carnation of India (Engl.)
Crape jasmine (Engl.)
Ceylon jasmine (Engl.)
Double-flowering crape jasmine (Engl.)
East Indian rose-bay (Engl.)
Pinwheel flower (Engl.)
Wax-flower plant (Engl.)

Botany
Pandakaking-Tsina is an erect, smooth, much-branched shrub 2 to 3 meters in height, with abundant, milky sap. Leaves are opposite, each pair unequal, glossy, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are usually double, white, fragrant, and borne singly or in pairs on peduncles at the axils of the leaves. Corolla-tube is about 2 centimeters long and the limb is spreading, about 5 centimeters in diameter, and yellow at the center.

Pandakaking-Tsina

Distribution
– Of recent introduction in the Philippines.
– Cultivated in Manila and large towns for its flowers.
– Origin is unknown, but now cultivated in most tropical countries.

Pandakaking-Tsina2

Constituents
– Roots contain resin, extractive matter and a bitter alkaloid.
– The milky juice contains caoutchouc and resin.
– Studies have yielded alkaloids and non-alkaloid constituents, flavonoids, phenyl propanoids, phenolic acids and enzymes.
– Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded steroids, tannins, saponins, gums and reducing sugar.

Pandakaking-Tsina3

Properties
– Considered antioxidant, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, analgesic.

Parts used
Root, bark, leaves, sap, flowers.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Study on chemical constituents of Tabernaemontana divaricata (?) / Liang Shuang, Chen Hai-sheng et al / Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University, 2007-04 / DOI: CNKI:ISSN:0258-879X.0.2007-04-022

(2) Reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract on synaptic transmission in rat CA1 hippocampus / Wasana Pratchayasakul, Anchalee Pongchaidecha et al / Indian J Med Res 131, March 2010, pp 411-417

(3) Tabernaemontana divaricata extract inhibits neuronal acetylcholinesterase activity in rats / Siriporn Chattipakorna, Anucha Pongpanparadorn et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 110, Issue 1, 1 March 2007, Pages 61-68

(4) The effects of Tabernaemontana divaricata root extract on amyloid beta-peptide 25-35 peptides induced cognitive deficits in mice / Nakdook W, Khongsombat O et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):122-6. Epub 2010 May 6

(5) Evaluation of anti-fertility activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn) R.Br. leaves in rats / Sachin Jain, Avijeet Jain et al / Natural Product Research, Volume 24, Issue 9 May 2010 , pages 855 – 860 / 10.1080/14786410903314385

(6) Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the flowers of Tabernaemontana coronaria (l) R.BR / Priya T Thambi et al / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006, Volume : 68, Issue : 3, Page : 352-355

(7) Antioxidant Activity of Flowers and Leaves of Tabernaemontana Divaricata Linn. / C. Stalin, S. Kamalasivam, E. Hariharan / PHARMATUTOR-ART-1127

(8) EVALUATION OF ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA (LINN) R. BR. FLOWER EXTRACT / BASAVARAJ P, SHIVAKUMAR B, SHIVAKUMAR H, MANJUNATH V J / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2011

(9) Antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of methanol extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves / Nowshin Nowaz Rumzhum, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Khalequzzaman Kazal / Rumzhum et al., International Current Pharmaceutical Journal 2012, 1(2): 27-31

(10) Crape jasmine / Common names / Flowers of India

(11) ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA (LINN) R. Br. FLOWERS EXTRACT IN MICE / P. BASAVARAJ*, B. SHIVAKUMAR and H. SHIVAKUMAR / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, Issue 3, July-Sept 2010

(12) ANTIDIABETIC AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF
TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA (L.) LEAVES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED MICE
 
/ MD. MASUDUR RAHMAN*, MOHAMMED AKTAR SAYEED, KAISHAR PARVEJ BIPLAB, SAIFUL ALAM SIDDIQUE / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Issue 1, 2012

(13) Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata L. Flowers in Rats / Qamruzzama*, Javed Akhtar Ansari, Mateen Sayyed / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2012, 4 (5):1518-1522

(14) Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant Activity Mediated Gastroprotective Action of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. Flower Methanolic Extract against Chemically Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats / Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Abdul Manan Mat Jais, and Adiba Afreen / BioMed Research International,
Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/185476

(15) Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Study of Leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L). / Rahman Md. Ashikur, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Rhanman Md. Mofizur, Shahid Israt Zahan, Roy Sonjoy Muhuri / IRJP 2(6) 2011, pp 123-127.

(16) QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA / B. N. VEDHA HARI, AKHILA SRAVYA DANTU, P. SHANKARGURU, D. RAMYA DEVI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Health Care, Vol 4, No 2, 2012.

(17) Anti-Obesity activity OF Tabernaemontana Divaricata: Anti obesity activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata/ S. K. Kanthlal, P. Royal Frank / Book published 12 Mar 2013


Pandakaking-Tsina4Uses

Folkloric
– Root or root-bark chewed for relief of toothache.
– Root-bark used as anthelminthic.
– Root, rubbed with water into a thin paste, used as vermicide; also, mixed with lime juice, applied to remove opacities of the cornea and other eye diseases.
– Milky juice, mixed with oil, rubbed into the head to relieve eye pains.
– Juice of flowers mixed with oil used to relieve burning sensation of sore eyes; also used for skin diseases.
– Milky juice of leaves used as drops for ophthalmia; also used as cooling application to irritable surfaces and wounds to prevent inflammation.
– Decoction of leaves used for coughs.
– In India, root used as local anodyne.
– In Ayurveda, Chinese and Thai traditional medicine, used for fever, pain and dysentery.

Study Findings
• Phytochemicals: Study of roots and stems of Tabernaemontana divaricata isolated six compounds: bis
(2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) octacosanedioate, tetratriacontanol, palmitic acid, glycerol monopalmitate, ß-sitosterol and ß-daucosterol.
• Acethylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effect / Alzheimer Disease: Study demonstrated the T. divaricata extract could be beneficial in slowing the process of memory loss with additional benefits on learning and memory process. Results suggest TDE could be used to develop a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
• Reversible Acethylcholinesterase Inhibitory Effect: Study showed T. divaricata extract is a reversible AChE-inhibitor and could be beneficial as a novel therapeutic agent for AD.
• Decreased Acethylcholinesterase Activity / Alzheimers: Study suggests subchronic administration of TDE might prevent beta 25-35 peptides-induced memory deficits by decreasing the AChE activity level. It presents a potential nootropic supplement for elderly people with Alzheimer’s dementia.
• Cholinergic Alkaloids: At least 66 alkaloids have been isolated from T. divaricata. Possible cholinergic candidate alkaloids are: coronaridine, voacangine, isovoacristine, (19,20) dihydrotabemamine, and (19,20) dihydroervahanine A.
• Anti-Fertility: Study of ethanolic extracts of TD leaves on immature female rats exhibited oestrogenic activity. Enhanced uterine weight and increase in luminal epithelium height and histological changes suggest the TDE may be useful in anti-fertility therapy.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers: Study of the ethanol extract of T. coronaria flowersshowed anti-inflammatory activity attributed to its free radical scavenging properties.
• Gastroprotective: Study investigated the anti-ulcer property of T. divaricata flower methanolic extract. Results showed remarkable gastroprotective effect with significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidities and ulcer index.
• Antidiabetic / Cytotoxic: Study investigated the antidiabetic activity of a methanol extract of flowers on alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. Results showed antihyperglycemic effect and low cytotoxicity may provide new molecules for the treatment of diabetes.
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant: Study investigated the biologic activities of stem extracts. Results showed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. A crude ethanol extract exhibited inhibition of gram positive and gram negative bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus. An ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activities.
• Antinociceptive: Crude ethanol extract of leaves of T. divaricata produced significant writhing inhibition i acetic acid-induced mice model.
• Antioxidant / Flowers and Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of flower and leaves of Td. Results showed significant antioxidant activity.
• Anticonvulsant: An alcoholic extract of flowers of Td tested in animal models showed anticonvulsant property with decreased duration of tonic extensor phase. Results lend pharmacologic credence to the plant’s folkloric and ethnomedical use in the treatment of epilepsy.
• Cytotoxic / Antioxidant: A methanolic extract of leaves showed potent dose-dependent antioxidant property in all antioxidant assays. The extract also showed significant cytotoxic effect suggesting the presence of potent bioactive principles with a potential for antiproliferative, antitumor, and pesticidal applications.
• Anxiolytic: Study evaluated the anxiolytic activity of alcoholic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata on mice models using EPM (Elevated Plus Maze), OFT (Open-Field Test) and LDT (Light-Dark Transition) tests. Results showed significant anxiolytic activity attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents.
• Antidiabetic / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of a methanol extract of leaves of T. divaricata leaves on alloxan induced diabetic mouse model. The extract was also subjected to Brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed T. divaricata has potential antidiabetic activity and low toxicity.
• Antibacterial / Bovine Mastitis: Study of dried leaves yielded steroids, tannins, saponins, gums, and reducing sugar. It was evaluated for antibacterial activity against causative organisms of Bovine Mastitis. Ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts showed maximum potency against infectious pathogens S. aureus, Coagulase negative Staph aureus Streptococcus agalactae, Strep uberis and E. coli.
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers: Study of an ethanolic extract of T. divaricata flowers showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on a Wistar rat model.
• Antiulcerogenic / Prostaglandin Analogous and Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antiulcerogenic effect of a methanolic extract of T. divaricata flowers in aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcers. All three test doses exhibited gastroprotective function, with the higher doses being more effective, probably through antioxidant mechanism and enhancement of gastric mucus production.
• Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of various extracts of dried leaves showed maximum potency against infectious pathogens viz Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis,Salmonella typhi, E coli, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated fresh and dried flower extracts for anthelmintic activity using Indian earth worms. Results showed anthelmintic activity at various concentrations compared with standard drug Metronidazole.
• Anti-Obesity / Leaves: Study evaluated the potential effect of a methanol extract of aerial parts of T. divaricata on obesity and hyperlipidemia on atherogenic diet induced obese rats. Results showed Td exerted significant anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

Availability
Wild-crafted.