Family • Labiatae / Lamiaceae - Leucas aspera (Willd.) Spreng. - COMMON LEUCAS - Feng chao cao
|Phlomis aspera Willd.|
|Leucas aspera Willd.|
|Pansi-pansi (Ting., Tag., Bis.)|
|Common leucas (Engl.)|
|Feng chao cao (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|BENGALI: Ghal ghase.|
|CHINESE: Feng chao cao.|
|HINDI: Chhota halkusa, Gophaa.|
Pansi-pansi is an erect and diffusely branched annual herb. Leaves are linear or oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long with blunt tips and scalloped margins. Whorls are large, terminal and axillary, about 2.5 centimeters in diameter and crowded with white flowers. Calyx is variable, with an upper lip with short, triangular teeth.Corolla is small.
– Found in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Pampanga, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; in Mindoro; and in Mindanao (Lanao) in open, dry, sandy soil.
– A weed in waste places, and locally abundant.
– Also occurs in India to Mauritius and Java.
• Studies have yield LC alipathic compounds, a triterpene-leucolactone, sterols – sitosterol, campesterol stigmasterol and a phenolic compound.
• Study yielded a liquid alkaloid, nicotine, from the aerial parts.
• Methanol fractions of leaf extracts yielded fatty acid esters, fatty acid amide, triterpene, diterpene alcohols and phytol as major chemical compound groups.
• Whole plant is fragrant.
• Considered antipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, laxative and anthelmintic.
– A fragrant herb used in cooking.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera flowers / K Mangathayaru, J Lakshmikant et al / Fitoterapia Volume 76, Issues 7-8, December 2005, Pages 752-754
(2) Effect of Leucas aspera on hepatotoxicity in rats / K Mangathayaru, X Fatima Grace et al / Indian Journ of Pharmacol, Oct 2005, Vol 37, Issue 5, Pp329-330.
(3) Preliminary antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Leucas aspera root / M S Rahman et al / Fitoterapia • Volume 78, Issues 7-8, December 2007, Pages 552-555 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.06.018
(4) Larvicidal activity of Leucas aspera against the larvae of C quinquefasciatus and A aegypti / R Maheswaran et al / International Journal of Integrative Biology
(5) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LINN. AND LEUCAS ASPERA SPRENG. IN ALBINO RATS / K Srinivas et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2000; 32: 37-38
(6) Isolation and identification of nicotine from leucas aspera (willd) link / K Mangathayaru et al / Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:88-90 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.22972
(7) Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute inflammation / T Vetrichelvan and M Jegadeesan / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 17 Issue 1, Pages 77 – 79
(8) Diterpenes from Leucas aspera Inhibiting Prostaglandin-Induced Contractions / Samir Kumar Sadhu, Emi Okuyama et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (7), pp 988–994 / DOI: 10.1021/np058118m
(9) Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera / Ai Lan Chew,1 Jeyanthi James Antony Jessica,2 and Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Mar 2012; 2(3): 176–180. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60037-9
(10) Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae) / Kovendan K, Murugan K, Vincent S, Barnard DR. / Parasitol Res. 2012 Jan;110(1):195-203. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2469-2. Epub 2011 May 31.
(11) EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT DURING EXPOSURE TO LEAD ACETATE IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS / M.THENMOZHI, M.DHANALAKSHMI, K.MANJULA DEVI, K.SUSHILA, S.THENMOZHI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 1, 2013
(12) Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity Antioxidant and histological study in mice / C Venkatesan, M Sarathi, G Balasubramanian, John Thomas, V Balachander, V Sarath Babu, S Mohammed Yusuf Bilal, S Abdul Majeed, N Madan, N Sundar Raj, S Vimal, KSN Nambi, AS Sahul Hameed / Hum Exp Toxicol July 15, 2013 0960327113494901 / doi: 10.1177/0960327113494901
(13) ANTIOXIDANT AND CURATIVE EFFECT OF LEUCAS ASPERA METHANOLIC EXTRACT AGAINST CARBONTETRA CHLORIDE INDUCED ACUTE LIVER INJURY IN RATS / B. LATHA AND M.S. LATHA* / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Issue 1, 2013
(14) CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS INVESTIGATION OF LUCAS ASPERA LEAVES – A POTENTIAL FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANT / A. ANANDAN, R. ESWARAN, A.DOSS, G. SANGEETHA and S. P. ANAND */ Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 5, Issue 1, 2012, 86-88
(15) In vitro studies on antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic properties of Leucas aspera / M Akter, MAI Khan, MDA Muhsin, K Hamid, M Obayed Ullah, IJ Bulbul, A Firoz, M Burhan Uddin, KF Urmi* / Biology and Medicine, 4 (4): 183–187, 2012
(16) Hepatoprotection by fresh juice of Leucas Aspera leaves / Shirish S. Pingale / Pelagia Research Library
(17) ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA SPRENG / M. KANNAPPA REDDY, S. VISWANATHAN, P. THIRUGNANASAMBANTHAM and LALITHA KAMESWARAN / Ancient Science of Life, Vol No. XII Nos. 1 & 2, July – October 1992, Pages 257 – 260
(18) Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats / Kavitha R, Kannan R, Glory Josephine I. / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 2(4): 433-437 / doi: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130817
(19) Evaluation of the Effect of Leucas Aspera Alcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose level in Normoglycemic and Diabetic Rats. / Adiga, Shalini and Sagar, V and Ravindrasingh, R and Vasantha */ Pharmacologyonline, 2011, 3. pp. 1046-1050.
(20) Immunostimulatory Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Leucas aspera In Cyclophosphamide Induced Immunosuppressive Mice / S.Stalin*, P.Sampath Kumar / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.5, No.3, pp 910-914, July-Sept 2013
(21) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Fractions of Leucas Cephalotes Leaves Extract / Mathur Abhishek *, Gupta Vinay, Verma Satish K., Singh Santosh K., Prakash Archana, Prasad GBKS , Dua VK / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research Volume 1, Issue 3, February 2011 – April 2011
(22) Antidiabetic and Hypoglycaemic Activity of the Crude Extracts of the Plant Leucas Aspera / Gupta N*, Subhramanyam EVS, Sharma R K / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INNOVATIONS, Volume 1, Issue 1, March-April 2011
· In the Philippines, crushed plant is applied hot to wounds.
· Decoction of leaves and bark used to hasten menstruation.
· Decoction also used after childbirth.
· Used for fever, colds and scabies.
· Bruised leaves used for bites of snakes and poisonous insects.
· Juice of leaves used for psoriasis and other skin disorders.
· In Malabar and Reunion, plant is given for amenorrhea.
· Leaves used in rheumatism.
· In India, used as an insecticide and as traditional medicine for coughs, colds, painful swellings, skin eruptions, scabies, and snake bites.
· In Siddha medicine: Samoolam of the plant is crushed and boiled in water, and the steam used for inhalation treatments of nasal congestion, cough, cold, fever, headache. Flower juice for sinusitis. Flower oil used for headaches and sinusitis. Juice or decoction of flowers and leaves used for intestinal worms in children. Leaves rubbed over scorpion bites.
• Antimicrobial: Study of methanol extract and methanol fraction of LA flowers showed good antibacterial activity; alkaloidal residue showed maximum activity.
• Antioxidant / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Extract study showed prostaglandin inhibition and antioxidant activity. Study yielded eight lignans and four flavonoids.
• Hepatoprotective: Study showed hepatoprotective activity of LA attributed to the unconfirmed presence of flavonoids.
• Antinociceptive / Antioxidant:Ethanolic extract of L aspera showed significant writhing inhibition and significant free radical scavenging activity and significant lethality to brine shrimp with an LC50 value.
• Larvicidal: Study of crude extracts of L aspera showed good larvicidal activity against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti
• Anti-inflammatory: Study showed L aspera to have significant anti-inflammatory effect in acute and subacute inflammation, more effective than acetylsalicylic acid and less than phenylbutazone.
• Alkaloid / Nicotine: Study yielded a liquid alkaloid from the aerial parts of L aspera, identified as nicotine, giving a characteristic tobacco-like odor. The insecticidal property of the herb could be due to the presence of nicotine.
• Diterpenes / Inhibition of Prostaglandin-Induced Contractions: Study on the inhibitory activity on prostaglandin-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum yielded four new diterpenes (leucasperones A and B and lecasperols A and B) and three new isopimarane glycosides (leucasperosides A, B, and C) together with known compounds. Leucasperone A, leucasperosides A and B, and linifolioside (known compound) showed inhibition of prostaglandin-induced contractions.
• Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study evaluated methanol extracts of various parts of L. aspera for biologic activity. A methanol extract of root showed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E. Crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity. A methanol root extract showed significant toxicity on brine shrimp lethality assay.
• Anti-Malarial / Larvicidal and Pupicidal: Study investigated the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of ethanolic extracts of L. aspera and B. sphaericus against first and fourth instar larvae and pupae of laboratory-reared mosquitoes. Results showed excellent potential for controlling the malarial vector, A. stephensi.
• Hepatoprotective / Lead Exposure / Leaves : Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of a leaf extract of L. aspera on male albino wistar rats during exposure to lead acetate. Results showed hepatoprotective activity with significant dose-dependent reduction of liver enzymes.
• Antivenom / Triterpenoid / Leaves: A triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), isolated from a methanolic leaf extract, was studied for antisnake venom activity. The plant significantly antagonized the cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. There was significant attenuation of the venom-induced antioxidant status and LPO activity in different organs.
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Injury: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of L. aspera against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats. Results showed antioxidant and curative effects. Phytochemical screening yielded sitosterol, flavonoids and alkaloids which could have been responsible for the possible hepatoprotection.
• Antibacterial / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated L. aspera leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties. All extracts showed remarkable antibacterial activity against all studied organisms except E. coli. None showed antifungal activity. A methanol extract showed strongest cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay.
• Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract for antiulcer activity by two experimental models. Results showed significant reduction i acid secretion and ulcer score, possibly through a combination antisecretory effect and protective effect on the gastric mucosa.
• Safety / Potential Anabolic Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous suspension of dried powder leaves in three different animal groups. There were no changes in behavioral responses indicating the safe nature of the plant. A significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggested a potential anabolic / nutraceutical property.
• Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves and stem on blood glucose of normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Chronic administration showed hypoglycemic activity with significant reduction in FBS levels comparable to the drug metformin.
• Immunostimulatory Effect in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of an aqueous extract in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed mice. There was significant increase in neutrophil and DTH activity with increase in RBC, WBC, and Hb. Results suggest L. aspera provoked both cellular and humoral immune responses.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study showed alkaloidal fractions of leaves caused significant reduction in inflammation in carrageenan induced paw edema testing.
• Anti-Diabetic: Study showed extract of leaves caused a significant antihyperglycemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with improvement in parameters such as body weight and lipid profile, as well as regeneration of pancreatic ß-cells.
Seeds in the cybermarket.