Family • Passifloraceae - Passiflora edulis Sims. - PASSION FRUIT - Ji dan guo
|Passiflora edulis Sims.|
|Passiflora diaden Vell.|
|Passiflora gratissima A. St.-Hil.|
|Passiflora incarnata L.|
|Passiflora iodocarpa Barb. Rodr.|
|Passiflora minima Blanco|
|Passiflora pomifera M. Roem.|
|Passiflora rubricaulis Jacq.|
|Passiflora vernicosa Barb. Rodr.|
|Passion fruit (Engl.)|
|Ji dan guo (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Xi fan lian, Xi guo fan lian, Yan shi liu.|
|DANISH: Granatblomst, Passionsfrugt.|
|DUTCH: Eetbare passiebloem, Paarse-passievrucht, Passiebloem, Passievrucht, Passie vrucht.|
|ENGLISH: Couzou (Guyana, Surinam), Passion fruit.|
|FINNISH: Kärsimyshedelmä, Passiohedelmä.|
|FRENCH: Couzou, Fruit de la passion, Grenadille pourpre, Maracaju pourpre, Passiflore comestible.|
|GERMAN: Granadilla, Passionsfrucht, Purpurgranadilla, Purpur-Granadille.|
|HUNGARIAN: Golgotavirág gyümölcse.|
|ITALIAN: Granadiglia, Frutto della passione, Passiflora commestibile.|
|MALAY: Buah susu, Konyal (orange-skinned), Markisa (purple-skinned).|
|POLISH: Meczennica jadalna.|
|PORTUGUESE: Flor-da-paixão, Granadilho, Maracuj (Brazil), Maracujá, Maracujá-mirim, Maracujá-peroba, Maracujá-pequeno, Maracujá-roxo, Maracujá-suspiro.|
|SPANISH: Ceibey (Cuba), Couzou (West Indies), Curuba (Colombia), Fruta de la pasión, Parcha (Puerto Rico, Venezuela), Parchita (Venezuela), , Parchita maracuyá.|
|THAI: Lin mang kon, Ling mang kon, Saowarot.|
Passiflora edulis belongs to the Passifloraceae family, with about 500 species distributed in warm temperatures and tropical regions.
Pasyonaryo is a sturdy climbing vine with angular stems. Leaves are ovate, deeply 3-lobed, green, with many serrate edges, up to 13 centimeters broad. Fruits are edible, globular-oblong, dull purplish, with a hard rind, up to 6 centimeters in diameter.
– Native to Brazil.
– In the Philippines, cultivated in gardens in towns and cities.
– Phytochemical screening of leaf and callus yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and triterpenes from ethanol and chloroform extracts.
– Study of methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed a predominance of triterpenoid steroids and saponins. The methanolic extract also showed tannins and flavonoids.
– Flavonoids, mainly C-glycosylflavones, are the major constituents of leaves and pulp.
– Phytochemical analysis of various extracts of leaves yielded saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, amino acids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, reducing sugars, and tannins. A methanolic extract yielded 5 bioactive compounds, viz., dodecanoic acid,10-methyl-,methyl ester (C14H28O2 ), E,E,Z-1,3,12-Nonadecatriene-5,14-diol (C19H3402), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,2,3- dihydroxypropyl ester (Z,Z,Z) (C21H36O4 ), S.Hexadecenoic acid,9-octadecenyl ester (Z,Z) (C34H64O2 ) and Docosanoc acid,1,2,3 propanetriyl ester (C69H134O6) respectively.
– Nutritive analysis of fresh fruit per 100 g yield 97 Kcal, 23.38 g. carbohydrates, 2.20 g. protein, 0.70 g total fat, 0 mg cholesterol, 10.40 g dietary fiber. Vitamin contents yielded 14 µg folates, 1.50 mg niacin, 0.10 mg pyridoxine, 0.130 mg riboflavin, 0 mg thiamine, 1274 IU vitamin A, 30 mg vitamin C, 0.02 µg vitamin E, 0.7 mg vitamin K. Electrolytes yielded 0 mg sodium, 348 mg potassium. Minerals analysis yielded 12 mg calcium, 0.086 mg copper, 1.60 mg iron, 29 mg magnesium, 68 mg phosphorus, 0.6 µg selenium, and 0.10 mg zinc. Phytonutrient analysis yielded 743 µg carotene-B, 41 µg crypto-xanthine-B, and 0 µg lycopene.
– Studies have shown antibacterial, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and lipid-benefit activities.
– Studies have suggested the fruit rind has a higher nutrient content than the pulp.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Sorting Passiflora names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(2) Comparative studies on anxiolytic activities and flavonoid compositions of Passiflora edulis ‘edulis’ and Passiflora edulis ‘flavicarpa’. / Li H, Zhou P, Yang Q, Shen Y, Deng J, Li L, Zhao D. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 16;133(3):1085-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.039. Epub 2010 Nov 24.
(3) Comparative pharmacological study of hydroethanol extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis leaves / Petry RD, Reginatto F, de-Paris F, Gosmann G, Salgueiro JB, Quevedo J, Kapczinski F, Ortega GG, Schenkel EP. / Phytother Res. 2001 Mar;15(2):162-4.
(4) Preliminary Phytochemical and Anti-Bacterial Studies on Passiflora edulis / Johnson, M*, Maridass, M and Irudayaraj V / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 425-432. 2008.
(5) Yellow passion fruit rind (Passiflora edulis): an industrial waste or an adjuvant in the maintenance of glycemia and prevention of dyslipidemia? / Sandra Maria Barbalho*, Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza, Júlio César de Paula e Silva, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Gabriela Aparecida de Oliveira, Tainara Costa and Flávia M. V. Farinazzi-Machado / Journal of Diabetes Research & Clinical Metabolism / DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.7243/2050-0866-1-5
(6) Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa and Petroselinum crispum (Mill) Fuss / Rodrigo A. Restrepo, Nelsy Loango, Mónica V. Moncada and Patricia Landazuri* / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3(4): 776-785, 2013
(7) Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis): isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging) capacity / Maria Luiza Zeraik; Janete H. Yariwake, *Jean-Noël Wauters, Monique Tits; Luc Angenot / Quím. Nova vol.35 no.3 São Paulo 2012
(8) Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Passiflora Edulis of Kodaikanal Region of Tamilnadu/ KadarKanaan / American Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol.2 No.2 2011
(9) Effect of the yellow passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa deg.) in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients / Maria do Socoro Ramos de Queiroz*, Daniele Idalino Janebro, Maria Auxiliadora Lins da Cunha, Josimar dos Santos Medeiros, Armando UO Sabaa-Srur, Margareth de Fatima FM Diniz and Silvana Cristina dos Santos / Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:89 / doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-89
(10) SEDATIVE AND ANTICONVULSANT PROPERTIES OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS DRIED LEAVES DECOCTION IN MICE / Elisabeth Ngo Buma, Esther Ngah, Benoite Charlotte Ekoundi, Christian Dong,
Rigobert Espoir Ayissi Mbomo, SilvereVincent Rakotonirina, Alice Rakotonirina / Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2004) 1: 63 – 71
(11) Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats / K. Devaki, U. Beulah, G. Akila, and V. K. Gopalakrishnan / Toxicol Int. 2012 Jan-Apr; 19(1): 63–67. / doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.94508
(12) The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats. / Barbosa PR1, Valvassori SS, Bordignon CL Jr, Kappel VD, Martins MR, Gavioli EC, Quevedo J, Reginatto FH. / J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):282-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.722.
(13) Antioxidant Activity of Passiflora edulis Sims Leaves / M. Sunitha and K. Devaki* / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 May-Jun; 71(3): 310–311. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.56038
(14) Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis extracts / Martina Rudnicki, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Tiago V. Pereira, Flavio Reginatto, Felipe Dal-Pizzol / Food Chemistry,: 3.26; 01/2007; 100(2):719-724 / DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.043
(15) THE INTAKE OF FIBER MESOCARP PASSIONFRUIT (PASSIFLORA EDULIS) LOWERS LEVELS OF TRIGLYCERIDE AND CHOLESTEROL DECREASING PRINCIPALLY INSULIN AND LEPTIN / E.M. Corrêa, L. Medina, J. Barros-Monteiro, N.O. Valle, R. Sales, A. Magalães, F.C.A. Souza, T.B. Carvalho, J.R. Lemos, E.F. Lira, E.S. Lima, D.M.L. Galeno, L. Morales, C. Ortiz, R.P. Carvalho / The Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice
(16) Phytochemical Investigation and Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Passiflora edulis Linn Leaves Available in South Eastern Odisha / Lingaraj Nayak, Sangram Keshari Panda* / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(4):897-899
(17) Hypoglycemic Activity of Passiflora edulis Sims Leaf Extract in Wistar Albino Rats / Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan et al / IRJP 2011, 2(9). 170-172
(18) Extract of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Seed Containing High Amounts of Piceatannol Inhibits Melanogenesis and Promotes Collagen Synthesis / Yuko Matsui, Kenkichi Sugiyama, Masanori Kamei, Toshio Takahashi, Tamio Suzuki, Yohtaro Katagata, and Tatsuhiko Ito / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58 (20), pp 11112–11118 / DOI: 10.1021/jf102650d
(19) Antihypertensive effect and lethal dose 50 of Passiflora edulis leaves (maracuya) fruit juice and ethanolic extract in rats / ROJAS, Juan et al. / An. Fac. med. [online]. 2006, vol.67, n.3, pp. 206-213.
(20) In Vitro Antisickling Activities of Yellow Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis F. Flavicarpa Deg) / Amujoyegbe O.O.*, Agbedahunsi J. M., Akinpelu B.A., Amujoyegbe B.J., Idu M., Oyedapo O.O. / Photon Journal
(21) Neuropharmacological activity of the pericarp of Passiflora edulis flavicarpa degener: putative involvement of C-glycosylflavonoids. / Ligia Moreiras Sena, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Eloir Paulo Schenkel, Thereza Christina Monteiro De Lima / Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 2009 Aug 2;234(8):967-75.
(22) Passiflora edulis Sims / Synonyms / The Plant List
– In Brazil, the fruit is widely cultivated and used in the food industry as processed juices.
– No reported medicinal use in the Philippines.
– Elsewhere, used for hypertension.
– In Brazil, leaves extracts long used as sedative. Flower decoction used to treat asthma, bronchitis, and whooping cough. In American countries, leaves used for anxiety and nervousness.
• Anxiolytic Activities / Flavonoid Contents / Comparative Effects: Study compared the anxiolytic activities and flavonoid compositions of species of P. edulis with purple fruit and yellow fruit. Ethanolic extracts of P. edulis flavicarpa displayed anxiolytic activities while P. edulis edulis exhibited sedative effect. Study yielded six major flavonoid compounds from the leaves of PE ‘flavicarpa’: lucenin-2, vicenin-2, isoorientin, isovitexin, luteolin-6-C-chinovoside, and luteolin-6-C-fucoside. Results suggest flavicarpa is extremely different from edulis and should be distinguished.
• Anxiolytic Activities: Study of hydroalcoholic extracts of P alata and P. edulis leaves using the elevated plus-maze test showed anxiolytic activity.
• Phytochemicals / Antibacterial: Study evaluated the phytochemical and antibacterial activity of leaf and callus of P. edulis Sims using various extracts. A chloroform extract of leaf and callus showed the maximum solubility and antimicrobial activity.
• Increased HDL Cholesterol Levels / Industrial Waste Potential: Study evaluated the biochemical profile of male Wistar rats treated with extract of rind of Passiflora edulis. Results showed increase in HDL cholesterol levels. The passion fruit rinds are discarded by fruit processing plants and its waste has a potential as source of new functional product.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antibacterial / Leaves: A methanolic extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus. The extracts were devoid of antifungal activity. A methanolic extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats using carrageenan-induced left hind paw edema method. (7)
• Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the ACE-inhibitory effect of several extracts from species of P. edulis and P. crispus. Considerable angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity was found for Passiflora edulis ethanolic extracts of fruit juice and leaves but not for Petroselinum crispum leaves.
• Antioxidant / Isoorientin / Fruit Rind: Study showed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds. Studies allied to assays of radical scavenging activity suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.
• Lipid and Oxidative Stress Benefits: Study showed P. edulis juice in experimental conditions showed beneficial effects on lipid profile and improved lipid peroxidation in Wistar rats.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae. A methanol extract exhibited the best antimicrobial activity against the bacteria.
• Human Spermicidal Effect / Fruit Extract: Study evaluated the spermicidal activity of Passiflora edulis extract on human spermatozoa. Results showed decreased motility and viability. Extract showed no cytotoxic effects on proliferation of MDBK and VERO cells.
• Diabetes Benefits / Decreased Insulin Resistance / Peel Flour Supplementation: P. edulis fruit peel flour have showed positive action in adjuvant blood glucose control. Study showed supplementation decreased insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a potential for adjuvant therapy in blood glucose control.
• Sedative / Anticonvulsant / Dried Leaves: P. edulis extract showed sedative activity in mice, significantly increasing total sleep time induced by diazepam. The extract also showed anticonvulsant activity protecting mice against strychnine-induced seizures and antagonized NMDA-induced turning behavior in mice.
• Toxicity Studies / Effect on Hematological Parameters / Safety: Study evaluated the toxicological effects of aqueous leaf extract in Wistar albino rats in acute and subacute toxicity studies. Results showed no effect of hematological parameters, renal and hepatic markers. Acute toxicity study showed the extract to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg. Subacute study showed no effects on bone marrow function, with no hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic effects.
• Anti-Anxiety: Study in rats showed that, similar to diazepam, P. edulis and P. alata induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats, with no disruption in the memory process. P. edulis required lower active doses of aqueous extracts than P. alata in inducing anxiolytic-like effects.
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanol extract of P. edulis leaves for antioxidant activity using a DPPH quenching assay and reducing power test models. The leaf extract showed potential antioxidant in both assay models. Phytochemical analysis yielded saponins, tannin and phenolic compounds, flavonoids, steroids, oils and fats, and terpenoids. Study evaluated the leaf extracts of P. alata and P. edulis for antioxidant activities in in vitro and ex vivo assays. Both extracts showedantioxidant properties, the activities significantly correlating with polyphenol contents. Both extracts attenuated ex vivo iron-induced cell death.
• High Fiber Diet Effect on Metabolic Profile: Study evaluated the effect of high-fiber diet albedo of passion fruit on metabolic and biochemical profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in plasma glucose, suggesting a potential hypoglycemic effect and an ability to reduce triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels, with a principal reduction of insulin and leptin.
• Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts of P. edulis for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in Swiss albino mice. The n-butanol extract showed better analgesic activity when compared to the other extracts and the standard drug, aspirin.
• Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Study investigated P. edulis for hypoglycemic effects in Wistar albino rats. Results showed significant hypoglycemic activity which may be attributed to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.
• Piceatannol / Seeds / Melanogenesis Inhibition / Promotion of Collagen Synthesis: Study evaluated the effect of passion fruit o melanin inhibition and collagen synthesis on cultured human melanoma and fibroblast cells. Fruit seeds yielded piceatannol (3,4,3′,5′-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene), a major component shown to be responsible for the effects on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis.
• Antihypertensive Effect / Leaves and Fruit Juice: Study showed the ethanolic extract of leaves and fruit juice of P. edulis were effective in decreasing the arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats, with oral acute toxicity.
• In Vitro Anti-Sickling Potential Effect: Study evaluated the in vitro antisickling potential of aqueous extracts of leaf and fruit extracts of P. edulis. Results showed activities with linear increase in inhibitory and reversal activities as concentration of the aqueous extract increased. The leaf extract was more active in inhibitory and reversal activities compared to the fruit juice.
• Neuropharmacological Effects / Pericarp: Study evaluated the central effects of various extracts and fraction of P. edulis flavicarpa in mice. Results showed an anxiolytic-like effect. The AE showed a sedative effect, potentiating the hypnotic effects of ethyl ether. The extracts and fractions showed a predominance of C-glycosylflavonoids, identified as isoorientin, vicenin-2-spinosin, and 6,8-ci-C-glycosylchrysin.