Family • Fabaceae - Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. - BAY BEAN - Hai dao dou
|Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.|
|Canavalia apiculata Piper|
|Canavalia arenicola Piper|
|Canavalia emarginata (Jacq.) G.Don|
|Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thouars|
|Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Urb.|
|Clitoria rotundifolia (Vahl) Sesse & Moc..|
|Dolichos emarginatus Jacq.|
|Dolichos maritimus Aubl.|
|Dolichos rotundifolius Roxb.|
|Pataning dagat (Tag.)|
|Friol de playa (Span.)|
|Beach bean (Engl.)|
|Bay bean (Engl.)|
|Jack bean (Engl.)|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Hai dao dou.|
|FIJIAN: Dralawa, Dautolu.|
|GUAM: Akankang tasi.|
|HAWAIIAN: ‘Awikiwiki, Puakauhi.|
|SPANISH: Friol de playa.|
Pataning-dagat is a vigorous prostrate twining vine with sparsely puberulent stems. Leaves are alternate, compounded and long-petioled with 3 broad obovate leaflets, 2 to 15 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a long peduncled raceme with a few paired pink-purple pea type flowers about 4 centimeters long. Stamens are ten in number united into a tube covering the elongated ovary. The pods are rough, turgid, 8 to 12 centimeters long and 2 to 3 centimeters wide with fairly large seeds. New plants start vegetatively from runners.
– Found along tidal streams, brackish swamps and muddy banks throughout the Philippines.
– The flowers are wind pollinated.
– Seeds are dispersed from the pods and transported by water to distant places.
– Found in most coastal tropical beaches, cliffs, and dunes.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Nutritional and microbiological features of little known legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars
and C. maritima Thouars of the southwest coast of India / S. Seena and K. R. Sridhar / Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, India
(2) Coastal sand dune vegetation: a potential source of food, fodder and pharmaceuticals / K R Sridhar and B Bhagya / Livestock Research for Rural Development 19 (6) 2007
(3) Canarosine: A new guanidine alkaloid from Canavalia rosea with inhibitory activity on dopamine D1 receptors / Duangpen Pattamadilok et al / DOI: 10.1080/10286020802181513 / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 10, Issue 10 October 2008 , pages 915 – 918
(4) Native crystal structure of a nitric oxide-releasing lectin from the seeds of Canavalia maritima / Carlos Alberto de Almeida Gadelha et al / Journal of Structural Biology • Volume 152, Issue 3, December 2005, Pages 185-194 / doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2005.07.012
(5) Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(6) Biological Flora of Coastal Dunes and Wetlands: Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC / Gabriela Mendoza-Gonza Ìlez, M. Luisa Mart ÌÄ±nez, and Debora Lithgow / DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-13-00106.1
(7) Pterocarpin and Isoflavan Derivatives from Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Thou. / Xinping Huangâˆ—, Bing Mu, Wenhan Lin and Yan Qiu / Rec. Nat. Prod. 6:2 (2012) 166-170
(8) A ConA-like lectin isolated from Canavalia maritima seeds alters the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans / Theodora Thays Arruda Cavalcante, Victor Alves Carneiro, Cinara Carneiro Neves, HumberlÃ¢nia de Sousa Duarte, Maria Gleiciane de Queiroz Martins, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa Arruda, Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos, HÃ©lcio Silva dos Santos, Rodrigo Maranguape da Silva Cunha, Benildo Sousa Cavada, Edson Holanda Teixeira / ABB, Vol.4 No.12, December 2013 / DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.412143
(9) Nutritional evaluation of tender pods of Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes / Bhaskar Bhagya, Kandikere R. Sridhar, Sahadevan Seena, Chiu-Chung Young, Ananthapadmanabha B. Arun / Frontiers of Agriculture in China, December 2010, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 481-488
(10) CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RAW, COOKED AND FERMENTED SPLIT BEANS OF CANAVALIA ON CANCER CELL LINES MCF-7 AND HT-29 / Vedavyas Ramakunja Niveditha, Divana Krishna Venkatramana, Kandikere Ramaiah Sridhar* / IIOABJ; Vol. 4: Issue 4; 2013: 20â€“23
• Plant yields alkaloids, phenols, saponins. Leaves yield cyanogens.
• An active principle, L-betonicine has been isolated, with no conclusive hallucinogenic evidence.
• Assessment of biochemical and protein quality of thermally treated seeds showed protein and energy values surpassing common pulse crops. Fatty acids and carbohydrates in test seeds were superior to those of soybean; and essential amino acids phenylalanine and lysine of treated seeds were higher than WHO/FAO reference.
• Proximate and mineral composition of seed fours on dry weight basis yielded in gms or mg per 100 gr: moisture 9.3 Â± 0.13%, crude protein 34.1 Â±0.52 g; crude lipid 1.7 Â± 0.1 g; crude fiber 10.2 Â± 0.18 g; ash 3.5 Â± 0.18 g; crude carbohydrate 50.5 Â±0.53 g; energy value 1586 Â± 8 KJ; total protein 29.3 Â± 0.6 g; sodium 47.96 Â±0.73 mg; potassium 974.32 Â± 5.99 mg; calcium 86.16 Â± 4.27 mg; phosphorus 158 Â± 2.28 mg; magnesium 23.13 Â± 0.o2; zinc 13.08 Â±1.2 mg; manganese 2.01 Â± 0.21 mg.
• Ethanol extract of grounded and air-dried leaves and stems yielded pterocarpin and isoflavan derivatives elucidated as 2- hydroxy-3, 9-dimethoxypterocarpin (1), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-8,9-methylenedioxypterocarpan, medicarpin, 7-hydroxy-2′,4′-dimethoxy isoflavan, 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisofalvone 5,7,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone, 3,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxylflavone, and quercetin.
• Considered aphrodisiac.
Leaves, shoots, roots.
Edibility / Nutritional
– Seeds are edible and serve as an important source of dietary protein in West Africa and Nigeria.
– Tender pods and seeds may be boiled or roasted.
– When mature, pods and seeds are soaked before being eaten to remove toxins.
– Juice from the petioles applied to puncture wounds by thorns or other sharp objects.
– Decoction of leaves used for rheumatism.
– Paste of leaves used for boils and sores.
– In Samoa, plant potion used during labor.
– Shoot decoction used to treat tuberculosis. Roots used for treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning, aches, pains, rheumatism, and leprosy. Leaf extracts used for burns, and as styptic.
– In Tonga, hot water infusion of leaves with other plants used to treat secondary amenorrhea and postpartum hemorrhage.
• Fodder: In Africa and Southeast Asia, used as fodder because of high protein content of leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.
• Entheogen: Dried leaves have been used as entheogen, a component to some ancient rituals.
• In ancient Peru, the fruit had ritual and magical significance.
• In South America, Africa and Gulf Coast of Mexico, beans of C. maritima are ingested or smoked with the dried leaves as marijuana.
• An increasing following for its use as a marijuana substitute.
• In ancient Peru, the fruit had ritual and magical significance.
• Phytochemicals: Albumins and globulins are the major storage proteins, constituting 90% of the total proteins in Canavalia seeds. Total phenolics were low, while tannins and trypsin inhibition were absent. As with other legumes, Canavalia seeds possess antinutritional factors such as phenolics and phytohemagglutinins.
• Canarosine / Dopamine D1Receptor Inhibition: Study yielded a new acyclic alkaloid, canarosine, together with five known compounds. Canarosine showed inhibition of the dopamine D1 receptor binding.
• Lectin / Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation: Study of a lectin from Cm seeds and its relaxant activity on vascular smooth muscle showed that CM exerts a concentration-dependent relaxant action on isolated aortic rings probably via an interaction with a specific lectin-binding site on the endothelium, resulting in a release of nitric oxide.
• ConM Lectin / Alteration of Biofilm Formation in Strep mutans: Study evaluated the effects of ConM and concanavalin A (ConA) on the expression of genes related to virulence and biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is the biofilm-forming bacterium primarily associated with dental caries. Results showed ConM significantly reduced the expression of genes encoding enzymes related to adhesion , formation and regulation of biofilms. ConA did not alter the expression of genes studied.
• Nutritional Evaluation of Tender Pods: Study evaluated the nutritional, antinutritional and protein qualities of tender pods of C. maritima. Crude protein was comparable to many edible legumes. Cooking significantly elevated carbohydrates and calorific value of tender pod, while crude fiber was significantly decreased. Minerals did not drain too much on cooking; K, Mg, Zn and Mn in fresh or cooked pods were comparable or higher than the NRC-NAS recommended pattern. While cooking decreased the essential amino acids, threonine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine in cooked pods. levels were equivalent or higher than the FAO-WHO-UNU recommended pattern. Also, pressure cooking improved nutritional qualities by lowering the hemagglutinin activity.
• Anticancer / Cytotoxic on Cancer Cell Lines MCF-7 and HT-29: Methanol extract of cooked (C. maritima) and fermented (C. cathartica) split beans showed better in vitro anticancer activities compared to the raw beans. Results suggest a potential for the extracts of cooked/fermented beans to control colon cancer by diet management.
– Extracts in the cybermarket.