Family • Caesalpinaceae - Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. - SHOOFLY - Yun shih
|Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb.|
|Caesalpinia benguetensis Elm.|
|Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston|
|Mezoneurum benguetense Elm.|
|Biancaea sepiaria (Roxb.) Todaro|
|Cat’s claw (Engl.)|
|Liane sappan (Engl.)|
|Yun shih (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|AFRIKAANS: Kraaldoring, Mauritiusdoring.|
|FRENCH: Bois Sappan.|
|MALAGASY: Roimainty, Roinombilahy, Tsiafakomby, Tsifakombilahy.|
|URDU: Kander, Relan.|
|ZULU: Ubobo-Encane, Ufenisi, Ulozisi.|
Puto is a straggling, perennial, woody, thorny, stout climber, vines growing up to 30 feet high. Branches are finely downy, with small yellow prickles. Leaves are two-pinnate, 25 to 40 centimeters long. Leaflets are 10 to 24, opposite, oblong, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters long. Flowers are large, bright chrome-yellow, and on terminal, large, erect racemes. Pod is smooth, nearly flat, obliquely oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters long and about 2.5 centimeters wide, and tipped with persistent style base. There are 4 to 8 oblong, mottled seeds.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Caesalpinia sepiaria – Yun Shih / Entheology
(2) Studies on chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston / Li M, Zhang C, Chong L. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Nov;25(11):794-5.
(3) Antioxidant Properties of the Methanol Extract of the Wood and Pericarp of Caesalpinia decapetala / C R Pawar and S J Surana / J Young Pharm. 2010 Jan-Mar; 2: 45–49. / doi: 10.4103/0975-1483.62212
(4) Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Caesalpinia decapetala / Qiong Zhang, Xue-Ting Liu, Jing-Yu Liang and Zhi-Da Min / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Vol 6, Issue 3, May 2008, Pages 168-172 / doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(09)60015-7
(5) In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood / Upendra Bhadoriya*, Praveen Sharma, Shailendra Singh Solanki / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)
(6) Drug Release Studies from Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Polysaccharide / Somasundaram Jeevanandham*, Duraiswamy Dhachinamoorthi and Kothapalli Bannoth Chandra Sekhar / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2011), 10 (3): 597-603
– In Isabela and the Benguet Provinces in Luzon, in thickets about limestone cliffs and boulder, at altitudes of 1,200 meters.
– Also occurs in India and Japan, and southward to Malaya.
– Introduced into tropical Africa, America and Australia.
– Study yielded seven compounds: lupeol acetate, lupeol, oleanoic acid, pentacosanoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 1-(26-hydroxyhexacosanoyl)-glycerol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol.
– Ethanol extract of stems yielded seven compounds: 6′-hydroxy-3, 4-(1′′-hydroxy-epoxy-propane)-2′, 3′-(1′′β-hydroxy-2′′′-carbonyl-cyclobutane)-1, 1′-diphenyl, octacosyl 3, 5-dihydroxycinnamate, 2′, 4, 4′-trihydroxychalocone, bonducellin, 7, 3′, 5′-trihydroxyflavanone, daucosterin, and β-sitosterol.
– Purgative, astringent, anthelmintic , antipyretic, antimalarial.
– Reported as psychoactive and hallucinogenic.
Leaves, seeds, roots.
– Roots are considered purgative.
– In Chamba, the bruised leaves are applied to burns.
– Seeds are considered astringent, antipyretic, anthelmintic, and antimalarial.
– Used for the treatment of ague.
– In China, decoction of flowers used to expel intestinal worms. Plant also used for malaria and skin affections. In excess, use reported to cause idiocy.
– In india, plant decoction used for baths in treatment of jaundice. Leaves are used for burns, biliousness and stomach problems. Also used as laxative, tonic, and antipyretic.
– In southern India, bark is used for tanning.
– In Chinese herbal medicine, flowers reported to have magical properties, producing levitation and communication with spirits. Preparations of crushed and powdered seeds combined with seeds of Hyoscyamus niger (lang-tang) made in incense possess psychoactive properties when burned. Decoction of flowers drunk as tea to communicate with spirits or dispel evil forces.
• Anti-Implantation: C. sepiaria is one of nine plants in a study that confirmed the plants have anti-implantation effect.
• Antidiarrheal: On 182 plants studied, C. sepiaria was one of 28 flowering plants with antidiarrheal activity.
• Antioxidant: Study of methanol extracts from the wood and pericarp of C. decapetala showed significant concentration and dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Total phenols, flavonoids and total flavonols were higher in the pericarp than the wood.
• Gallic Acid / Radical Scavenging Activity : Study investigated the antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of gallic acid isolated from Caesalpinia decapetala. The total phenolic content was 4.31%. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity.
• Caesaldecan / Cassane Diterpenoid: Study isolated a new cassane diterpenoid, caesaldecan, from the leaves, together with eight known compounds viz. spathulenol, 4,5-epoxy-8(14)-caryophyllene, squalene, lupeol, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, astragalin, and stigmasterol.
• Seed Gum As Drug Release Vehicle: Seed gum isolated from C. pulcherrima kernel powder can be used for controlled release of both water-soluble and water insoluble drugs.