Family • Moraceae - Artocarpus altilis - BREADFRUIT - Luo mi shu
|Artocarpus altilis (Parkins.) Fosb.|
|Artocarpus communis JR Forst & G Forst.|
|Artocarpus incisus L. f.|
|Sitodium altile Parkinson|
|Fruta de pan (Span.)|
|Luo mi shu (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Mian bao guo, Mian bao shu, Mian bao guo shu.|
|DANISH: Brødfrugt, Brødfrugttrae.|
|DUTCH: Broodboom, Broodvrucht.|
|FRENCH: Brotfrucht, Brotfruchtbaum, Echter brotfruchtbaum.|
|HINDI: Kathal, Khanun.|
|ITALIAN: Artocarpo, Albero del pane.|
|MALAY: Kelur, Kulor (Indonesia), Kulur (Indonesia), Sukun (Indonesia, Bali), Timbul (Indonesia, Bali).|
|PORTUGUESE: Fruta-pão, Pão de mas.|
|SPANISH: Arbol del pan, Castaña de Malabar, Fruta de pan, Marure (Peru), Mazapán (Honduras), Pana de pepitas, Pan de año, Pan de ñame (Venezuela), Pan de pobre, Pan de todo el año (Venezuela).|
|THAI: Saake (sa ke).|
Rimas is a large tree with milky sap, growing to 15 meters tall. Leaves are alternate, large, coriaceous, ovate to oblong, up to 50 centimeters long, deeply pinnate, and acuminate. Stipules are large and deciduous. Fruit is globose to ellipsoid, up to 12 to 20 centimeters in wide, 12 to 16 centimeters long, the rind green, yellowish-green or pale yellow. seedless, with the surface marked with polygonal faces.
– Common plant in and around towns in the Philippines.
– Usually cultivated for its edible fruits.
– Occasionally planted as an ornamental in parks and gardens.
– Occurs from the Malay Peninsula to Malaysia.
Bark, leaves, fruit.
– Study has yielded papayotin, enzyme and artocarpin.
– Nutritional composition of 100 g edible portion of seeds yield:
– Water 47.7% (cooked), 61.9% (fresh)
– Protein 8.1g (c), 7.9 g (f)
– Carbohydrate 38.2 g (C), 26.6 (f)
– Fat 4.9 g (c), 2.5 g (f)
– Calcium 46.6 mg (c), 48.3 mg (f)
– Phosphorus 186 mg (c), 189 mg (f)
– Iron 2.3 mg (c,f)
– Niacin 2.1 mg (c), 1.8 mg (f)
– Thiamine 0.33 to 1.3
– Vitamin C 1.9 to 22.6
– Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins, phenolics, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones in cold and hot leaf extracts.
– Starch isolated from breadfruit yielded and moisture 10.83%, crude protein 0.53%, fat 0.39%, amylose 22.52%, amylopectin 77.48%, and ash 1.77% contents.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Bioassay-guided isolation of antiatherosclerotic phytochemicals from Artocarpus altilis / Phytotherapy Research Vol 20 Issue 12, Pages 1052 – 1055
(2) Investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of leaves of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) / Singh, Paul D et al / West Indian med. j;50(Suppl 5):15, Nov. 2001.
(3) Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) / Golden KD, Williams OJ./ J Chromatogr Sci. 2001 Jun;39(6):243-50.
(4) An extract of the leaves of the breadfruit Artocarpus altilis (parkinson) fosberg exerts a negative inotropic effect on rat myocardium / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 7 Issue 2, Pages 190 – 193 / Published Online: 1 Feb 2006
(5) Sorting Artocarpus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(6) Possible mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaves in producing hypotension in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. / Nwokocha CR, Owu DU, McLaren M, Murray J, Delgoda R, Thaxter K, McCalla G, Young L. / Pharm Biol. 2012 Sep;50(9):1096-102. / doi: 10.3109/13880209.2012.658113.
(7) Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Artocarpus altilis leaf. / Siddesha JM, Angaswamy N, Vishwanath BS. / Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1931-40./ doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.497962
(8) A new prenylated aurone from Artocarpus altilis. / Huong TT, Cuong NX, Tram le H, Quang TT, Duong le V, Nam NH, Dat NT, Huong PT, Diep CN, Kiem PV, Minh CV ./ J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14(9):923-8. doi: 10.1080/10286020.2012.702758
(9) Anti-Cancer Properties of Diethylether Extract of Wood from Sukun (Artocarpus altilis) in Human Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells / Enos Tangke Arung, Britanto Dani Wicaksono, Yohana Ayupriyanti Handoko, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Dina Yulia, and Ferry Sandra* / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, August 2009; 8 (4): 317-324
(10) Antitubercular and Antiplasmodial Prenylated Flavones from the Roots of Artocarpus altilis / Surat Boonphong, Apiwat Baramee, Prasat Kittakoop , and Pakawan Puangsombat / Chiang Mai Journal of Science, Vol 34, No 3, Sept 2007.
(11) Safety Evaluation of Artocarpus altilis as Pharmaceutical Agent in Wistar Rats / Sudha Sairam and Asna Urooj / Journal of Toxicology, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/980404
(12) Functional and pasting properties of a tropical breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) starch from Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria / *Akanbi T.O., Nazamid, S. and Adebowale, A.A / International Food Research Journal 16: 151-157 (2009)
(13) Functional properties of Artocarpus altilis pulp flour as affected by fermentation / F. Appiah., I. Oduro and W. O. Ellis / AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA 2011/ doi:10.5251/abjna.2011.2.5.773.779
Edibility / Nutritional
– Crop considered a carbohydrate food source.
– Fruit can be fried, boiled, candied or cooked as a vegetable.
– High in starch, it is also high in Vitamin B, with fair amounts of B and C.
– In the Caribbean, prepared boiled, steam or roasted, used with salt-cured meats, coconut milk, and dasheen leaves, in the creation of regional dishes.
– In the Philippines, eaten boiled, sliced with coconut and sugar as a sweet, or as candied breadfruit.
– In West Africa, seeds from ripe fruits and boiled or roasted with salt, sometimes made into a puree.
• Decoction of the bark used as vulnerary (wound healing). In the Visayas, decoction of the bark used in dysentery.
• Used as emollient.
• In the Caribbean, leaves are used to relieve pain and inflammation.
• In Jamaican folk medicine, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• Latex is massaged into skin to treat broken bones and sprains; bandaged on the spine to relieve sciatica. Used to treat skin ailments and thrush. Diluted latex used internally for diarrhea, stomach aches and dysentery. Latex and juice from crushed leaves used for ear infections. Bark used to treat headaches in several Pacific Islands.
• In the West Indies decoction of yellowing leaf is used to treat hypertension. Tea is also used to control diabetes.
• Insect repellent: Male inflorescences are dried and used as mosquito repellent. Latex is mixed with coconut oil for trapping houseflies in Kosrae.
• Caulk: Gum used to caulk canoes to make them watertight. and to prepare wooden surfaces for painting.
• Phytochemical: Study concluded that the starch of Artocarpus altilis showed a high degree of purity. Physiochemical and rheological characteristics suggest the starch could be useful in products that require long heating process, with an excellent digestibility that might be advantageous for medical and food use. Study showed percent recoveries of amino acid, fatty acid and carbohydrate content showed 72.5%, 68.2% and 81.4%. The starch content is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.
• Cytoprotective: Study yielded cytoprotective components – ß-sitosterol and six flavonoids with good potential for medicinal applications.
• Antiinflammatory: Extract of breadfruit leaves was shown to contain compounds with significant anti-inflammatory activities.
• Phenolic Compounds / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated isoprenylated flavonoids – morusin, artonin E, cycloartobiloxanthone and artonol B – that showed high toxicity against Artemia salina. Result of cytotoxicity test showed the presence of an isoprenyl moiety in the C-3 position in the flavone skeleton, an important factor for its activity.
• Negative Inotropic Effect: Leaf extract study exerted a weak, negative chronotropic and inotropic effect in vivo in the rat. The mechanism of action of the inotropic agent was not cholinergic and may involve decoupling of excitation and contraction.
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for possible antihypertensive mechanisms and effect on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities on Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed negative chronotropic and hypotensive effects through α-adrenoreceptor and Ca+- channel antagonism. Drug adversity are unlikely if the extract if consumed with other medications reliant on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolism.
• ACE-Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the effect of A. altilis leaf extracts on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. An ethanol extract showed potent ACE-inhibitory activity, supporting its use in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension.
• New Prenylated Aurone / Radical Scavenging Activity: Study isolated a new prenylated aurone, artocarpaurone, together with 8 known compounds. Artocarpaurone showed moderate nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, white two prenylated chalcones showed radical moderate scavenging activity in the DPPH assay.
• Anti-Cancer / Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells: Study evaluated Sukun wood extract in human T47D breast cancer cells. Results showed the extract decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 phase formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting a potential as an anti-cancer agent.
• Antitubercular / Antimalarial / Anticancer: Study of root extracts yielded nine prenylated flavones: Cycloartocarpin, artocarpin, and chaplashin from root stems, and morusin, cudraflavone B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C and artobiloxanthone from the root barks. The isolated compounds exhibited antitubercular and antiplasmodial activities, with moderate cytotoxicity against KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) and BC (human breast cancer) cell lines.
• Toxicity Studies / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the acute toxicity of A. altilis leaf and bark extracts. No mortality or toxic reactions were seen, with no histopathological changes. Results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses.
• Functional and Pasting Properties of Breadfruit Starch: Study showed breadfruit starch has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate use in many areas where properties of other starches are acceptable.
• Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation: Study showed the functional properties (bulk density, least gelation concentration and peak viscosity) of A. altilis pulp flour can be enhanced through fermentation and hence their incorporation into food systems.