Family • Boraginaceae - Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam. - TREE HELIOTROPE - Teng zi dan
|Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam.|
|Tournefortia hirsutissima Blanco|
|Tournefortia urvilleana Cham.|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Teng zi dan, Tai wan zi dan.|
|Tree heliotrope (Engl.)|
Salakapo is a climbing, hairy and somewhat woody vine. Leaves are oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, green, shining, somewhat harsh, pointed at the tip, and usually rounded at the base. Flowers are stalkless, pale-green, 5-parted, and borne on terminal, scorpioid inflorescences (cymes) about 10 centimeters or less in diameter. Calyx is 1.5 millimeters long, and hairy. Corolla is 5 millimeters long, with a limb 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is stalkless, rounded and 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Phenolic compounds from tournefortia sarmentosa / Lin YL, Tsai YL et al / J Nat Prod. 1999 Nov;62(11):1500-3.
(2) Anti-lipid-peroxidative principles from Tournefortia sarmentosa / Lin YL, Chang YY, Kuo YH, Shiao MS / J Nat Prod. 2002 May;65(5):745-7.
(3) Ester Derivatives of Tournefolic Acid B Attenuate N-Methyl-D-aspartate-Mediated Excitotoxicity in Rat Cortical Neurons / Chuen-Neu Wang, Hsien-Chia Pan et al / Molecular Pharmacology March 2006 vol. 69 no. 3 950-959
(4) Lithospermic acid-containing composition / FreePatentsOnLine
(5) Tournefortia sarmentosa extract attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity / Chun-Yuh Teng, Yi-Liang Lai et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, March 2012, Vol. 50, No. 3 , Pp 291-396 / doi:10.3109/13880209.2011.602695)
(6) Effect of aqueous extract of Tournefortia sarmentosa on the regulation of macrophage immune response./ Chen ML, Wu S, Tsai TC, Wang LK, Chou WM, Tsai FM. / Int Immunopharmacol. 2013 Dec;17(4):1002-8. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.09.021. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
– In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from the Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces.
– Occurs in Mauritius to Indo-China, Malaya and tropical Australia.
– Considered detoxicant, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory.
– In the Philippines, decoction of roots given internally after childbirth, to hasten expulsion of the placenta.
– Leaves applied as poultice on the forehead for headaches.
– In Taiwan, used as detoxicant and anti-inflammatory.
• Phytochemicals / Phenolic Compounds:Study isolated three new isoprenylbenzenes, tournefolins A, B and C, with two new -dihydroxybenzoyl compounds, and known compounds, salicylic acid and allantoin.
• Anti-Lipid Peroxidative Activity / Benzenoids / Antioxidant: Study yielded four new benzenoids, tournefola, tournefolic acids A and B, and B ethyl ester, together with salvianolic acid A, isosalvionolic acid C, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid F and rosmarinic acid from the stems of T. sarmentosa. All isolated compounds exhibited anti-LDL-peroxidative activity, more potent than probucol except for salvianolic acid F.
• Neuroprotective / Polyphenolic Compounds: Study has isolated a variety of polyphenolic compounds from T. sarmentosa, most possessing antioxidative activity, including tournefolic acid B, TAB methyl ester and TAB ethyl ester. Study showed TABM / TABE blocked the activation of the caspase cascade and eliminated the accumulation of O2, thus conferring neuroprotective effects on NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity.
• Hepatoprotective: Study investigated the aqueous extract effect on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Pre-treatment of hepatocytes with Ts extract before and during APAP stimulation attenuated the extent of lipid peroxidation, increased cell viability and GSH level, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. Results showed Ts can prevent APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
• Immunoregulatory: Study investigated the signaling mechanism of T. sarmentosa-medicated immunoregulation. Results suggest T. sarmentosa extract exerts dual functions on macrophages: suppressing ROS (reactive oxygen species) within cells and enhancing inflammatory responses by improving phagocytic ability and proinflammatory cytokine release.