Family • Euphobiaceae - Cleidion javanicum Blume - San tai hua

Scientific names

Cleidion spiciflorum (Burm. f.) Merr.
Cleidion javanicum Blume
Cleidion brevipetiolatum Pax ex K. Hoffm. ?
Acalypha spiciflora Burm. f.
Lasiostylis salicifolia Presl.

Common names

Agipos (Tag.)
Hantatampsi (C. Bis.)
Kayugkog (Tag.)
Lapo-lapo (Ilk.)
Malagasaba (Tag.)
Malatuba (Bik.)
Saligao (Tag.)
Tayokan (Tag.)
San tai hua (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Bang bing hua.
THAI: Di mee, Dimi, Ma-dee-mee, Maj maduug.
VIETNAMESE: Phân loại khoa học.


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Cleidion javanicum Bl / Sanseera, D., Niwatananun, W., Liawruangrath, B., Liawruangrath, S., Baramee, A. & Pyne, S. G. / Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 15 (2), 186-194.

(2) Revision of the genus Cleidion (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia / Kulju, Kristo K.M.; Van Welzen, Peter C. / Blumea – Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, Volume 50, Number 1, April 2005 , pp. 197-219(23)

Saligao is a large shrub or tree. Bark Is smooth to slightly fissured. Leaves are alternate or subopposite, oblong, about 12 centimeters long, and 5 centimeters wide. Flowers are solitary or few in a cluster, borne on the axils of the leaves. Fruit is somewhat rounded, about 3 centimeters in diameter.

– In forests at low and medium altitudes in most or all provinces from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
– Also occurs in India and Ceylon through Malaya to New Guinea.

– Essential oil of leaves yielded 10 constituents accounting for 92.60% of the total oil. Major constituents were ethyl linoleolate (32.12 %), hexadecanoic acid (26.77 %), trans-phytol (24.64 %) and iso- phytol (4.80 %).

– Plant reported to be poisonous.
– Considered abortifacient, analgesic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, stomachic.

Parts used
Bark, seeds, leaves.

– Decoction of leaves will produce abortion.
– Decoction of bark, taken internally, used as stomachic.
– Seeds reported to be effective for constipation.

Study Findings
• Phytochemicals: Study of the leaves isolated two flavone glycosides, acacetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and diosmetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside, plus p-propenylphenol-b-D-glucopyranoside, a linear diterpene, trans-phytol, and a lanostane triterpene, (24S)-24-methyl-5a-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3b-ol.
• Clerodane: Study isolated a polyoxygenated clerodane, spiciflorin, and also a glucoside of anol, columbin, scopoletin, 3,3′,4-O-trimethylellagic acid, acetylaleuritolic acid, common triterpenes and phenols.
• Essential Oil / Leaves / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity: Essential oil from leaves yielded ten constituents accounting for 92.6% of the total oil. (See constituents above) The oil showed non-cytotoxic effects against Vero cells. It exhibited anti-cancer activity against three human cancer cell lines (KB-oral cavity cancer, MCF7-Breast Cancer, and NCI-H187-Small Cell Lung Cancer. It showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also exhibited significant antioxidant activity.