Family • Capparidaceae / Capparaceae - Tinikan - Capparis micracantha DC. - CAPER THORN - Niu yan jing

Scientific names

Capparis odorata Blanco
Capparis flexuosa Blume
Capparis forsteniana Miq.
Capparis halobagat Naves
Capparis henryi Matsum
Capparis micracantha DC.

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Niu yan jing.
MALAY: Melada.

 Common names

Abuñgung (P. Bis.)
Balituk (Buk.)
Bayabas-uak (Tag.)
Dauag (Tag.)
Dawag (Tag.)
Halubagat-kahoi (Tag.)
Kasuit (Pamp.)
Malarayat-kahoi (Tag.)
Salimbagat (Tag.)
Salimomo (Bis.)
Saluasua (Bis.)
Tarabtab (Ilk.)
Tarabtab-ual (Ilk.)
Taraptap (Ilk.)
Tinikan (Tag.)
Capertree (Engl.)
Caper thorn (Engl.)
Xiao ci shin gan (Chin.)


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Capparis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(2) Antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Benchalokawichian remedy and its components. / Nuaeissara S, Kondo S, Itharat A. / J Med Assoc Thai. 2011 Dec;94 Suppl 7:S172-7.

Salimbagat is a smooth, half-erect shrub with drooping branches or a vine growing to 2 to 4 meters, with short, sharp and nearly straight stipular thorns. Leaves are oblong to oblong-elliptic, 8 to 17 centimeters long, leathery, shiny, with a blunt apex and rounded base. Flowers are in vertical line aloing the branches above the leaf axils, shortly pedicelled, 2 to 6 in a series, the uppermost one of each series opening first. Sepals are pale green. Petals are oblong or elliptic, 1 centimeter long. Fruit is ovoid or rounded, 4 to 5 centimeters long, smooth and bright red when ripe. Rind is thin, somewhat stony. Within the rind is a whitish and transparent sweet pulp with a fairly good flavor. Numerous seeds are embedded in the pulp.

– In thickets, second-growth forests, at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao.
– Also occurs in Myanmar, Thailand, and Indo-China to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago.

Parts utiliezed 

– In the Philippines, decoction of roots used for stomach pains and as uterine tonic after childbirth.
– Plant also used for asthma and for breast pains.
– Bark is used as diuretic and used for bronchitis and nasal ulcerations.
– In Cambodia, roots and wood used as diuretic.
– In the Yasothon province of Thailand, roots used as tonic; also, for tuberculosis.
Stems used for breast cancer.
In India, root is grated with water and used to treat quotidian fever.
In Indonesia, root is employed as a diuretic; infusion with other ingredients used for bronchitis.

Study Findings
• Anti-Cancer / Antituberculosis: Study of hexane extract of the leaves of Capparis micracantha showed lung cancer inhibition. The hexane and dichlormethane extracts of flowers showed anti-tuberculosis activity. All crude extracts showed non-cytotoxicity against Vero cells.
• Antibacterial / Benchalokawichian Remedy: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a Thai traditional formula, Benchalokawichian remedy, which has shown antipyretic and antiseptic properties on previous studies. The water extracts of the components (Capparis micracantha, Tiliacora triandra, and Harrisonia perforata) inhibited the Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains tested. Only T. triandra showed activity against C. albicans growth.