Shanghai beauty

Family • Euphorbiaceae - Jatropha integerrima Jacq. - FIDDLEHEAD - ATROPHA - Qin ye ying

Scientific names

Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P.Wilson
Adenoropium integerrinum (Jacq.) Pohl
Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andr.) Pohl
Jatropha acuminata Desr.
Jatropha coccinea Link
Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich
Jatropha hastata Jacq.
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.
Jatropha pandurifolia Andr.
Jatropha pauciflora C.Wright ex Griseb..

Common names

Shanghai beauty (Engl.)
Fiddlehead jatropha (Engl.)
Fiddle-leaf spurge (Engl.)
Peregrina (Engl.)
Rose-flowered jatropha (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Qin ye ying (Taiwan).
JAPANESE: Yatorofa integerima.
RUSSIAN: atrofa tsel’nokrainiaia, Korallovyi tsvetok.
SPANISH: Alelí, Alhelí, Peregrina.
THAI: Pattawia.

Jatropha pandurifolia is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, branching at the terminal part and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long.

Shanghai beauty

– Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread.
– Native to the West Indies.

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Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Preliminary Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Jatropha pandurifolia / Afsana Akhter et al / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 27 (6): 918-21 (2008)

(2) A novel 8,9-seco-rhamnofolane and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide from Jatropha integerrima roots / Somyote Sutthivalyakit et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 44, Issue 18, 28 April 2003, Pages 3637-3640 / doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(03)00704-4

(3) Jatropha integerrima / Synonyms / The Plant List

(4) Sorting Jatropha names / Common names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 – 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.

(5) Cytotoxic activity of two cyclic peptides from the latex of Jatropha integerrima Euphorbiaceae / Welé A, Baraguèye C, Ndiaye W, Fall D, Ndoye I, Diop Y, Dubosq L, Bodo B. / Dakar Med. 2007;52(3):209-15.

(6) Integerrimides A and B, Cyclic Heptapeptides from the Latex of Jatropha integerrima / Wantana Mongkolvisut, Somyote Sutthivaiyakit, Heiko Leutbecher, Sabine Mika, Iris Klaiber, Wolfgang Möller, Harald Rösner, Uwe Beifuss, and Jürgen Conrad / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (10), pp 1435–1441 / DOI: 10.1021/np0602012

(7) Enantiomeric neolignans and sesquineolignans from Jatropha integerrima and their absolute configurations / Jian-Yong Zhu, Bao Cheng, Yin-Jia Zheng, Zhen Dong, Shu-Ling Lin, Gui-Hua Tang, Qiong Gua and Sheng Yin* / RSC Adv., 2015,5, 12202-12208 / DOI: 10.1039/C4RA15966G

(8) IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF SOME JATROPHA SPECIES (FAMILY EUPHORBIACEAE) / Surendra K Sharma, Harneet Singh / 30-Jun-2013 Research Article July – September 2013

(9) DETOXIFYING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ENZYMES ACTIVITY IN TWO PLANT SPECIES EXPOSED TO AIR POLLUTION IN ABIDJAN CITY (CÔTE D’IVOIRE). / Koffi N’guessan Achille, Angaman Djédoux Maxime*, Barima Yao Sadaiou Sabas, Dongui Bini Kouamé / IJPAES, Volume-5, Issue-1, Jan-Mar-2015\

(10) Characterization of an Oxygenated Fatty Acid in Jatropha pandurifolia Seed oil for Hydroxy Fatty Acids / Swatika Sharma*, Seema Parveen, Abdul Malik and MRK. Sherwani / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 2(4), Oct-Dec 2013

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– Diterpene constituents consist of macrocyclic diterpenes jatrophone, jatrophatrione, jatropholone A-B, riolozatrione, curcusones A-D, rhamnofolane, lathyrane.
– Extracts of leaves and stems yielded tannin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins.
– Seed oil of J. pandurifolia yielded 38.40% oil content. Methyl ester analysis showed saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in varying proportions along with hydroxy fatty acid up to 8.6%.
– Methanolic extract of stem bark of J. pandurifolia isolated seven compounds viz. 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, jatropholone A, jatropholone B, 2α-hydroxyjatropholone, 2β- ydroxyljatropholone, scopoletin and aleuritolic acid 3-p-hydroxycinnamate.

– Considered purgative, styptic, emetic.
– Latex considered toxic.
– Leaves, if accidentally chewed can cause stomachalgia and can be purgative.

– No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
– Elsewhere, used in the treatment of warts, tumors, rheumatism, herpes, pruritus, toothaches, scabies, eczema and ringworm.

Study Findings 
• Antimicrobial / Cytotoxic: Study on the n-hexane extract of the plant showed significant inhibitory activity against tested microorganisms. It also showed significant cytotoxicity when subjected to brine shrimp lethality assay.
• Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Five indigenous plants, including J pandurifolia, were investigated for their antioxidant activity. All the extractives were shown to possess significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. Significant antioxidant activity was noticed by the chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract of J pandurifolia, and moderate antioxidant activity from the methanolic extract of the leaves of JP.
• Integerrimene: Study isolated integerrimene, a possible biogenetic precursor of the rhamnofolane diterpenes and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide 2-epicaniojane from the roots of J. integerrima roots.
• Cyclic Peptides / Cytotoxic Activity / Latex: Study isolated two new cyclopeptides: integerrima cyclopeptide 4 and integerrima cyclopeptide B from fractionation of ethyl acetate extract of latex. The two cyclopeptides showed significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against KB tumor cells with IC values of 0.46 ±0.04 and 0.66 ±0.08, respectively.
• Cyclic Heptapeptides / Latex / Antiproliferative: Study isolated two new cyclic heptapeptides, integerrimides A and B, from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Both peptides significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in neuronal cell culture. They also partially inhibited proliferation of human IPC-298 melanoma cells as well as migration of human Capan II pancreatic carcinoma cells.
• Enantiomeric Neolignans and Sesquineolignans / Inhibition of NO Production: Study of trunk of JI isolated two pairs of new sesquineolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignans A and B (1a/1b and 2a/2b), one pair of new neolignan enantiomers, (±)-jatrointelignan D (4a/4b), and two new neolignans, (+)-jatrointelignan C, and (+)-schisphenlignan I (5a) together with seven known analogues. Compounds 5a, 6a, and 4b exhibited pronounced inhibition on NO production.
• Antimicrobial: In a study of successive extracts of roots of three jatropha species viz. J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, and J. integerrima for antibacterial activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. luteus, E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans, all the extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 mg/ml extract.
• Catalase Activity / Monitoring of Environmental Pollution: Study assessed the activity of detoxifying peroxide enzymes as indicators of local air pollution. Results showed that catalase activity is more effective in stress conditions in J. integerrima and C. surattensis and could be a way to estimate atmospheric pollution in tropical countries.