Sili

Family • Solanacea

Capsicum annuum

Other scientific names
C. chamaexcerasus
C. grossum
Capsicum tetragonum
Common names
Kalubengan (Bon.)
kalubsengan (Bon.)
Sile (Tag.)
Sili (Tag., Ilk, Bik.)
Sileng bilog (Tag.)
Green pepper, pepper (Engl.)
Description
Erect, branched, smooth, annual herb, 30-50 cms long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are solitary and axillary, 1 to 1.8 cm in diameter. Petals are white to straw-colored. Fruit is of various sizes and varieties.

Capsicum annuum var. longum

Other scientific names
C. annuum var. longum Sendt.
Common names
Sileng-haba (Tag.)
Sileng mahahaba (Tag.)
Long pepper (Engl.)
Spanish pepper (Engl.)
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Description
Fruit is greenish-yellow or red, oblong lanceolate, narrowing to a tapering tip, up to 6 cm long and 1.5 cm across. It is spicy hot, often used in local pickles (achara) and for seasoning.

Capsicum annuum var. grossum

Common names
Sileng-bilog (Tag.)
Rounded pepper (Engl.)
Description
Fruit is ovoid to oblong-ovoid, green, red on ripening, 6-10 cm long and 5-6 cm in diameter. The variety is usually eaten as a vegetable or stuffed with meat.

Other vernacular names (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt.

AFRIKAANS: Soet rissie.
ARABIC: Felfel roomy, Filfil halwah (Iraq).
CHINESE: Deng long jiao, Tian jiao, Shi tou fan jiao, Yuan tian jiao, Da la jiao, Qing jiao, Shi zi jiao.
CROATIAN: Paprika slatka.
DANISH: Soed capsicum.
DUTCH: Zoete peper.
FRENCH: Poivron, Poivron doux, Poivron d’Espagne, Piment doux.
GERMAN: Spanischer Pfeffer .
HEBREW: Pilpel matok.
HINDI: Shimlaa mirch.
HUNGARIAN: Paprika.
ITALIAN: Peperone dolce.
JAPANESE: Ama tougarashi, Shishi tougarashi, Beru peppaa, Piiman.
MALAY: Cabai manis, Lombok besar (Indonesia). Chili manis, Cili manis, Chili besar, Cabe besar, Lada besar (Malaysia).
NEPALESE: Bhede khursaanii.
NORWEGIAN: Grønn paprika.
PERSIAN: Dolmeh felfel.
PORTUGUESE: Pimento doce, Pimentao doce, Pimentão doce (Brazil).
ROMANIAN: Ardei gras, Ardei lung, Ardei de boia.
SLOVENIAN: Sladka paprika.
SPANISH: Chili dulce, Pimiento dulce, Chile dulce, Chile morrón (Mexico).
THAI: Phrik yak.
URDU: Shimlaa mirch.

General info 
When Carolus Linneus first identified the genus Capsicum in the mid-1700s, there were only two species. By the 1900s, more than 100 cultivated species of Capsicums have been described. However, the variations were so minor that horticulturists have distilled the list anew to two: C. annuum, which includes cayenne peppers and chiles, as well as bell peppers, and C. fructescens, which is the pepper from which Tabasco sauce is made.

Capsaicin is the active ingredient in the extract of hot peppers. It is most concentrated in the rib or membrane, less in the seeds, least in the flesh. Capsaicin for medicinal use comes from Capsicum fructescens, a species of the cayenne pepper.

Sili

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(96)01384-0 / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 52, Issue 2, June 1996, Pages 61-70

(2) CAPSICUM – Therapeutic Powerhouse and Herbal Catalyst

(3) Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin / International journal of toxicology (Int J Toxicol) Vol. 26 Suppl 1 Pg. 3-106 ( 2007)

(4) In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against Microsporum and Trichophyton species / Theodouli Stergiopoulou et al / Medical Mycology, Volume 46, Issue 8 December 2008 , pages 805 – 810 / DOI: 10.1080/13693780802089831

(5) The Effects Of Capsicum Annuum And Capsicum Frutescens-Induced Gastric Acid Secretion In The Rat Is By H2 Receptor Stimulation / N Sambo et al / Highland Medical Research Journal • Vol 5, No 2 (2007)

(6) Green Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract for Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric acid solution / Gopal ji, Sudhish Kumar Shukla, Priyanka Dwivedi, Shanthi Sundaram, Eno E. Ebenso, Rajiv Prakash* / Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7 (2012) 12146 – 12158

(7) Antibacterial activity of two bell pepper extracts: Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens / Rose Koffi-Nevry, Kouassi Clement Kouassi et al / Internation Journal of Food Properties, 15:961-971, 2012.

At the Tuesday Ferry Building Farmer's Market
Constituents 
– Capsaicinoids: capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin.
– Carotenoid pigments: capsanthin, capsorubin, carotene, lutein.
– The skin has coloring matter capsicum red or carotin.
– The young fruit contains an alkaloid (solanine), citric acid, palmitic acid, volatile and fatty oils, pentosans and pectin.

Properties 
– Red pepper is a powerful local irritant, heart stimulant, and general stimulant; also considered stomachic and tonic.

Parts used and preparation
Leaves and mature fruit.

Siling-bilogUses
Nutritional
– An excellent source of calcium and fair source of iron and phosphorus and vitamin B.
– In India, C. annuum var. longum is a principal ingredient of various curries and chutney.

Folkloric
– Paste of the pepper is used a rubefacient.
– Infusion with cinnamon and sugar used for delirium tremens.
– Capsaicum, in equal parts with rhubarb and ginger, for gout and rheumatism.

Others
– Oleoresin capsicum: used in self-defense pepper sprays with transient immobilizing and incapacitating effects.

Study Findings
• Capsaicin: Capsaicin for medicinal use comes from Capsicum fructescens. Capsaicin depletes substance P in afferent type C sensory nerve fibers and treats pains without affecting the other aspects of the nervous system. Capsicum cream is available in several potencies and has been found useful for post-herpetic neuralgia, post-mastectomy pain, hemodialysis-associated pruritus, psoriatic itching and pain, painful neuropathies, especially diabetic neuropathy, and other superficial neuropathies. (see:Capsaicin) / Siling Labuyo
• Antimicrobial: Extracts of Capsicum species (C. annuum, C baccatum, C. chinense, C frutescens and C. pubescens were tested for their antimicrobial effects. The study yielded two pungent compounds, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, extracts of which showed varying degrees of inhibition against B cereus, B subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, C tetani and S pyogenes.
• CAY-1 / Antifungal: Saponin CAY-1 from cayenne pepper showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. Results on dermatophytes of T mentagrophytes, T rubrum, T tonsurans and Microsporum canis indicate potential for treatment of dermatomycoses.
• Plasma Glucose Lowering: Volunteers who received capsicum showed significantly lower plasma glucose levels and higher insulin levels. Results present clinical implications in the management of type 2 diabetes.
• Antioxidant: Capsicum pepper has powerful antioxidant capacity. 100 g of the pepper was shown to have an antioxidant equivalent activity of 826 mg of vitamin C.
• Herb-Drug Interactions: Theophylline absorption may be increased. Increase the cough associated with ACE inhibitors Increase sedative effects of drugs. May antagonize hypotensive effects of antihypertensives. May increase absorption of acetaminophen.
• Gastric Acid Secretion: Aqueous extracts of C annuum or C frutescens induced gastric acid secretion dose-dependently.
• Corrosion Inhibition / Fruit Extract: Study reported green capsicum annuum fruit extract as inhibitory for mild steel corrosion in acid solution. Results showed maximum efficiency of 85%. Corrosion inhibition was attributed to molecular absorption of inhibitory over mild steel surface.
• Antibacterial: Study evaluated methanol and ethanol fruit extracts of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens for antibacterial activities selected bacteria. Both extracts were effetive against Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The methanol extracts showed higher antibacterial activity., and C. annuum showed greater activity than C. frutescens.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated in its varieties; occasionally spontaneous.
Fruit cultivated as condiment.
Topical capsicum ointments.