Family • Leguminosae - Glycine max (L.) Merr. - SOYBEAN - Ta Tou
|Glycine max (L.) Merr.|
|Glycine hispida Maxim.|
|Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.|
|Dolichos soja Linn.|
|Phaseolus max Linn|
|Soja hispida Moench.|
|Soja max Piper|
|Ta Tou (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|ARABIC: Fûl sûyah.|
|BURMESE : Lasi, Pengapi, Peryatpym.|
|CHINESE: Da dou, Huang dou, Huang da dou, Mao dou.|
|FRENCH : Haricot soja, Soja, Pois soja.|
|ITALIAN : Soia, Fava soja, Soja.|
|JAPANESE : Daizu.|
|KHMER : Sândaèk sieng, Sândaèk an gen sar.|
|LAOTIAN : Thwàx khôn, Thwàx tê.|
|SINHALESE : Boo mae.|
|THAI: Thua lueang (Thuaa leuuang), Thua phra lueang, Thua rae.|
|TURKISH : Soya lubyasi, Çin lubyasi.|
|VIETNAMESE : Dâu tuong, Dâu nành, Quantan.|
Soya is a stout and suberect annual plant growing to a height of less than a meter. Stems are densely clothed with fine feruginous hairs. Leaves are long-petioled, with 3 leaflets, oval, 5 to 10 centimeters long. Racemes have few flowers which are congested. Calyx is densely hairy, about 7 millimeters long, with long teeth. Corolla is reddish, and a little exserted. Pods are linear-oblong, 2 to 3 in each axil of leaf, 4 to 5 centimeters long, recurved and densely hairy, containing 2 to 4 oblong to subglobose seeds.
– Domesticated in southeastern Asia more than 3,000 years ago for its pods and seeds.
– Cultivated in some parts of the Philippines.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(2) Soy (Glycine max) / Safety / Mayo Clinic / THIS EVIDENCE-BASED MONOGRAPH WAS PREPARED BY THE NATURAL STANDARD RESEARCH COLLABORATION (www.naturalstandard.com)
(3) Investigation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Glycine max (L.) Merr. on Serum Glucose Level in Diabetic Mice / Sachin L Badole and Subhash L Bodhankar / Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine: Vol. 6 : Iss. 1, Article 4. • DOI: 10.2202/1553-3840.1207
(4) Effect of isoflavone extracts from Glycine max on human endothelial cell damage and on nitric oxide production / Paulo, Michele et al /Menopause: May/June 2009 – Volume 16 – Issue 3 – pp 539-544 / doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31818d6349
(5) Identification of the Potent Phytoestrogen Glycinol in Elicited Soybean (Glycine max) / Stephen Boue et al / / Endocrinology, doi:10.1210/en.2008-1235 / Endocrinology Vol. 150, No. 5 2446-2453
(6) Comparative Study on Iron Release from Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Ferritin Induced by Anthocyanins and Ascorbate / Jianjun Deng, Jianjun Cheng, Xiayun Liao et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58 (1), pp 635–641 / DOI: 10.1021/jf903046u
(7) Glycine max / Soybean / EOL / Encyclopedia of Life
(8) Sorting Glycine names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9) Chemomodulatory potential of Glycine max against murine skin and cervical papillomagenesis. / Singh, M, Mendez E, Rao A Ramesha, Kale R K / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Nov 2011
• One of the world’s most useful plant; and considered by some as the world’s most important legume crop.
• Total commercial production of soybeans in 2010 was 261.6 million metric tons worldwide, harvested from 102.4 million hectares (2% of the world’s agricultural land), with the U.S. producing just over one third of the world total.
• Contains a fixed oil, 14-22&; protein, 50%; carbohydrates, 16.2%; diastase, urease, lipase, allantoinase, peroxidase, pentosan, sojasterol, sitosterin, and phasin.
• The two primary isoflavones are daidzein and genistein; others are puerarin, genistin and daidzin.
• Soybean proteins have two major components: beta-conglycinin (vicilin class) and glycinin (legumin class), accounting for 390-40% of total seed proteins.
• Considered astringent, carminative, and quieting.
• Dried sprout considered laxative, resolvent, and constructive.
• Root considered astringent.
Leaves, flowers, oil.
Edibility / Nutritional
– Typically consumed as a protein drink, soy flour, soy protein, extract, fiber, cereal or milk beverage.
– Staple article of food in China and Japan.
– “Tokua” as food and” toyo” as flavoring are made from the beans.
– Tokua is remarkable for its content of protein and fat and low proportion of carbohydrates when compared to beans.
– Soy milk is considered a substitute for human milk, and used in making ice-cream and flan.
– Soybean is a good source of vitamins A and B; the sprouts have good vitamin C content.
– Soybeans and soy foods are considered the best dietary sources of isoflavones.
• Bruised leaves applied to snake bites.
• Flowers used for blindness and corneal opacities.
• Green bean hulls chewed to a pulp are applied to smallpox ulcers, corneal ulcers and excoriations in children from urine.
• Black beans are considered to provide vigor and strength, and considered a counter poison against most vegetable poisons, ie., Aconite and Croton tiglii.
• Dried sprouts believed to be beneficial for hair growth and curative for ascites and rheumatism.
• Dried sprouts, without the hulls, are considered laxative, resolvent, and constructive.
• Oil used for ulcers and skin diseases, and for removing bandoline from the hair.
• Cholesterol lowering: Soy protein in the diet can help decrease total and LDL cholesterol with no significant effect on HDL.
• Anti-diarrheal: Soy formula for infants and young children decreased bowel movements and days of diarrhea.
• Menopause: May be beneficial in reducing menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes. A study in Spain of 190 postmenopausal women on isoflavone-rich soy preparation (PHYTO SOYA) showed significant improvement in menopausal symptoms associated with lack of estrogen.
• Anti-Cancer: Some studies are conflicting as to whether supplements can increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. The isoflavone genistein in animal cancer studies have shown anticancer effects: anti-angiogenesis, tyrosine-kinase inhibition, or apoptosis. However, genistein has been reported to increase growth of pancreatic tumor cells in the lab.
• Diabetes: Functional components associated with ameliorating T2DM: beta-sitosterol (antilipemic), genisterin and daidzein (lipase inhibitory), glycitein and soyasaponin A3, A4, A5, A6 and soyasaponin V (lipoxygenase inhibitory), soyasaponin A1 and A2 and stigmasterol (antilipemic).
• Antihyperglycemic: Extracts from the seeds of G max were evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity. Results conclude that the aqueous extract, but not the petroleum ether and alcoholic extracts, showed antihyperglycemic activity.
• Anti-Arthritic: A study of G max for antiarthritic activity showed reversal of paw volume, biochemical, hematological and histological parameters. Further investigation is suggested to identify the compounds responsible for the antiarthritic activity.
• Isoflavone / Antioxidant: Study showed soy extracts activate NO synthesis in endothelial cells and protect against cell damage. The soy isoflavones potentially act as a NO promoter and as an antioxidant.
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed ethanolic extracts of G max and R nulubilis seeds tested possessed antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities.
• Potent Phytoestrogen Glycinol: Study of a novel isoflavone, glycinol, showed potent estrogenic activity and may represent an important component of the health effects of soy-based foods.
• Antibacterial / Anticancer: Study evaluated various extracts of four trifoliate plants: Glycine max (control), Cajanus cajans, Phaseolus vulgaris and Tecoma stans for bioactivities. The chloroform extract showed the best antibacterial activity; the methanol extracts, the best anticancer activity.
• Chemomodulatory / Anticancer: Study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of Glycine max against DMBA-induced skin and MCA-induced cervical pappilomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results showed G. max provided chemoprevention by modulating the detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes.
• Allergies: Like milk, eggs, peanuts, fish and wheat, may act as a food allergen. Symptoms are can be varied, from runny nose to hypotension.
• Side Effects: Soy protein may cause gastrointestinal intolerance – bloating, nausea, constipation. Infants fed with soy protein formula may develop vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, colitis, atopic eczema and thyroid abnormalities.
• Estrogen Effects: Because of concerns on estrogen-like effects, its use is discouraged in patients with hormone-sensitive cancers (breast, ovarian, uterine).
Extracts and miscellany of soy food products and supplements in the cybermarket.