Family • Solanaceae - Nicotiana tabacum Linn. - TOBACCO
|Nicotiana tabacum Linn.|
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) In vitro and In vivo anthelmintic activity of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep / Zafar Iqbal et al / Phytotherapy Research â€¢ Vol 20 Issue 1, Pages 46 – 48 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1800
(2) Nicotiana tabacum as a homeopathic remedy / Johannes Wilkens / AnthroMedLibrary
(3) Nicotiana Tabacum (Tobacco): A Cardiac Poison / NDRI.com
(4) THE FILTHY WEED / botgard.ucla.edu
(5) A pair of sesquiterpene glucosides from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum / Feng X, Wang JS, Luo J, Kong LY / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 Mar;12(3):252-6.
(6) LIPID STUDIES ON NICOTIANA TABACUM AND NICOTIANA RUSTICA OF THE FAMILY SOLANACEAE / Amran Waheed / Pakistan Research Repository
(7) ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NICOTIANA TABACUM USING DIFFERENT SOLVENTS EXTRACT / S JEHAN BAKHT, AZRA1 AND MOHAMMAD SHAFI / Pak. J. Bot., 44(1): 459-463, 2012.
Tabako is a coarse, erect, viscidly-hairy annual herb growing to a height of 0.7 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are large, elliptic-ovate to oblong or obovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long or longer, narrowed by the base, and sessile or short-stalked. Inflorescences are terminal. Calyx is green, ovoid or tubular, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, with five triangular lanceolate teeth. Corolla is white and pink, linear, funnel-shaped and about 5 centimeters long. Capsule is ovoid, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, with very numerous white seeds.
• Leaves contain active principles, the toxic alkaloid nicotine (0.6 to 9 %) and three other alkaloids: nicoteine, nicotelline, and nicotinine. Also yields anabasine, betaine iamylamine, pyrrolidine, and n-methyl pyrroline, resin, albumen, gum, extractive matter, and ash containing large amounts of salts (sulphates, nitrates, chlorides, phosphates, malates, and citrates of potassium, ammonium, calcium, etc.)
• Study isolated a pair of sesquiterpene glucosides – 3-hydroxysolavetivone-beta-D-glucoside A and B – from the leaves.
• Except for the ripe seeds, all parts are considered poisonous.
• Leaves considered antispasmodic, discutient, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, narcotic, sedative, maturative, styptic and sialagogue.
• The nicotine alkaloid is rapidly absorbed from all mucous membranes, lungs and skin, but more commonly enters through the lung alveoli, quickly reaching the heart and brain receptors, and largely eliminated by oxidation through the liver (80 to 90%), a small amount metabolized in the kidneys and lungs. Elimination half-life is 2 hours.
• Nicotine is the primary psychoactive constituent of tobacco â€“ cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and nicotine patches, gum, inhalers and sprays.
• It acts on the autonomic ganglia. One cigarette causes a 50% rise of noradrenaline and 15% rise of adrenaline. From the posterior pituitary, vasopressin is released.
• A pack per day smoking increases the coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction three-fold. There is also an increase in emphysematous lung disease, lung cancer, peripheral vascular disease and stomach ulcers. In women who smoke, there is a higher incidence of premature births, deformities and perinatal infant mortality.
• Used by herbalists as a relaxant, it has long been abandoned because of its highly addictive nature.
• In the Philippines, fresh leaves used as poultices as sedative and maturative.
• Decoction of dried leaves used in enemas for expelling certain intestinal worms.
• Dried leaves used as styptic.
• Juice of leaves is sedative, antispasmodic and a powerful insecticide.
• Dried leaves are nauseating, emetic, sometimes purgative.
• Has been used for coughs, whooping cough, hiccups, spasmodic laryngitis, asthmas.
• Tobacco snuff has been used for headache, giddiness and fainting.
• Leaves applied to the abdomen in colic and gripes.
• The ashes, mixed with oil, are applied to bleeding sores.
• Leaves have been used for pain and rheumatic swelling, syphilitic nodes and skin diseases.
• Used extensively in agricultural and horticultural applications, for fumigating, spraying, as worm powders, insecticides.
Medical Use in History
• In Europe, first reported as a remedy for wound healing and headaches by Jean Nicot Sieur de Villemain (1530-1600)
• Reported as curative for skin ailmentsw, goiter, broken limes, headaches, ulcers, worms, syphilis and dropsy by Jean Liebault (1536-1596).
• Nicolas Monardes of Spain advocated its used as an enema and tobacco syrup for asthma and coughs.
• From the 16th to the end of the 19th century it was a highly valued herbal curative for a variety of ailments.
• Anthelmintic: Study of methanol and aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum exhibited dose-dependent anthelmintic activity both in vitro and in vivo, justifying its use in traditional medicine in Pakistan.
• Hematologic Effects: Study of the aqueous extract of N tabacum leaves showed significant decrease in RBC count, PCV, Hb and platelet count with increase in MCV and MCH. Results suggest the consumption of the aqueous extract of N tabacum may lead to some level of anemia despite its “pleasant effects.”
• Lipid Studies / Seed Oils: Plant lipids find application not only in nutrition, but also in the production of lotions, ointments and various pharmaceutical preparations. ipids Seeds of N. tabacum and N. rustica were found to contain lipids 41.3% and 36.6% respectively. The lipid class in N. tabacum were hydrocarbons (1.4%), wax esters (1.7%) sterol esters (2.4%), triacylglycerols (69.3%), free fatty acids (6.2%), l,3-diacylglycerols (4.6%), l,2-diacylglycerols (3.5%), free sterols (2.3%), 2-monoacylglycerols (2.1%), 1-monoacylglycerols (1.8%), phosphatidylethanolamines (1.7%), phosphatidylcholines (0.9%), Iysophosphatidylethanolamines (1.5%) and phosphatidylinositols (0.6%).
• Antimicrobial: In vitro antibacterial screening of various extracts of N. tabacum revealed different ranges of antibacterial activities. An ethyl acetate extract was more effective in controlling Bacillus cereus and Erwinia carotovora followed by a butanol extract against Staph aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens.