Family • Myrsinaceae - Ardisia squamulosa Presl - SHOEBUTTON ARDISIA - Dong fa zi jin jiu
|Willughbeia drupacea Blanco|
|Ardisia squamulosa Presl|
|Ardisia boissieri A. DC.|
|Ardisia obovata F.-Vill.|
|Ardisia drupacea Merr.|
|Ardisia littoralis Merr.|
|Ardisia humilis F.-Vill.|
|Ardisia negroensis Mez|
|Ardisia elliptica Thunberg|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Lan yu zi jin niu, Dong fa zi jin niu.|
|INDIA: Bisi, Kadna, Katapenga, Bugadi, Manipudbam, Kozhkkottai, Narikandam, Kaka-njara, Bodhina gida, Shuli, Bode, Sore, Banjam, Kuti, Damaai phal.|
|MALAYSIA: Buah letus, Cempenai, Lempenai, Mempenai, Penai, Penah, Periah, rempenai, Daun bias hati, Kayu lampilan, Mata pelandok.|
|NEPAL: Damai phul.|
|Babagion (C. Bis.)|
|Panghas (P. Bis.)|
|Tagpo (Tag., Bik., C. Bis., Sul.)|
|Tamil (C. Bis.)|
|Tayupo (C. Bis.)|
|Duck’s eye (Engl.)|
|Elliptical-leaf ardisia (Engl.)|
|Shoebutton ardisia (Engl.)|
Tagpo is a small tree reaching a height of about 10 meters. Leaves are alternate, oblanceolate to elliptic-oblanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are white or pink, fragrant, borne on compound, terminal or lateral inflorescences, and about 1 centimeter in length. Fruit is dark blue or purple, rounded, and 5 to 8 millimeters in diameter.
– Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,000 meters throughout the Philippines.
– Occurs in India, Sri-Lanka, Indo-China, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea.
– Vulnerary, febrifuge, anti-diarrheal.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) The genus Ardisia: a novel source of health-promoting compounds and phytopharmaceuticals / Hideka Kobayashi and Elvira de Mejia / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 96, Issue 3, 15 January 2005, Pages 347-354 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.037
(2) In vitro anti-herpes simplex viruses and anti-adenoviruses activity of twelve traditionally used medicinal plants in Taiwan / Lien-Chai Chiang, Hua-Yew Cheng et al / Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, Vol 26 / 2003 Nov
(3) Anti-Salmonella activity of constituents of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. / Methin Phadungkit, Omboon Luanratana / Natural Product Research (2006), Volume: 20, Issue: 7, Pages: 693-696
(4) Ardisia squamulosa C.Presl is a synonym of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. / The Plant List
(5) Ardisia elliptica / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(7) Beta-amyrin from Ardisia elliptica Thunb. is more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. / Ching J, Chua TK, Chin LC, Lau AJ, Pang YK, Jaya JM, Tan CH, Koh HL. / Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 Mar;48(3):275-9.
(8) Antioxidant Activities of Syzygium Cumini and Ardisia Elliptica in Relation to Their Estimated Phenolic Compositions and Chromatic Properties / A. M. Siti-Azima, A. Noriham, and M. Nurhuda / IJBBB 2013 Vol.3(4): 314-317 ISSN: 2010-3638 / DOI: 10.7763/IJBBB.2013.V3.221
(9) Ardisia elliptica / Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 4, Fruits / By Tong Kwee Lim / GoogleBooks
(10) Antioxidant and antidiarrheal activities of ethanol extract of Ardisia elliptica fruits / Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Arif Ahmed, Hemayet Hossain, and Ismet Ara Jahan / doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.826245)
(11) Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Ardisia ellipica Thunb. Fruit Extract / Nalinphat Saktiyasunthorn, Songpol Chivapat, Pornchai Sincharoenpokai, Anudep Rungsipipat, Nongnuth Maneechai, Boonyanee Suphaphon, Aussavashai Shuayprom / The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol 42, No 2 (2012)
– Flowers and fruits cooked as flavoring for fish.
– In the Philippines, leaves used on wounds.
– Malays use a decoction of leaves for treatment of chest pains, fever, diarrhea, and parturition problems; roots may be substituted for the same use.
– Plant used for complications of parturition, liver poisoning, fever, and diarrhea.
• Health-Promoting Compounds / Phytopharmaceuticals: Species of Ardisia are a rich source of novel and potent phytochemical compounds, such as bergenin and ardisin. Report reviews the usage and biological activities of Ardisia compounds.
• Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus / Anti-Adenovirus: In a search for new antiviral agents from traditional medicine, the hot water extracts of 12 traditionally used medicinal plants in Taiwan, including Ardisia squamulosa, showed anti-HSV and anti-ADV activities. A. squamulosa was more effective in inhibiting ADV-8 replication than the other four viruses.
• Antibacterial / Anti-Salmonella: Study of dried fruit extracts yielded three compounds, viz., syringic acid, isorhamnetic and quercetin, which showed activity against veterinary Salmonella.
• Antiplatelet / Î±- and ÃŸ-Amyrin: A methanol extract yielded two compounds, viz., Î±- and ÃŸ-amyrin, and screened for antiplatelet activity. The pharmacokinetics and multivariate date analysis predicted both Î±- and ÃŸ-amyrin to be antiplatelet.
• Aspirin VS ÃŸ-Amyrin in Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation: Study investigated the effect of fresh leaves extracts of A. elliptica on collagen induced platelet aggregation and to isolate and purify potential antiplatelet components. Fractionation isolated and purified ÃŸ-amyrin. Results suggest ÃŸ-amyrin was the bioactive component, which was more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation.
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities in Syzygium cumini and Ardisia ellipitica using various assays in relation to total flavonoid, phenolic, and anthocyanin contents. Total flavonoid content and anthocyanin content exhibited a very strong relationship with FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH scavenging activities, and A. elliptica showed better in chromatic properties compared to Syzygium cumini.
• Antimicrobial: Study has shown Ardisia elliptica to have antimicrobial activity. A hexane extract of leaves yielded hydrocarbons, apolar and polar fatty esters, triterpenoid alcohols (bauerenol, Î±- and ÃŸ-amyrin), sterols (ÃŸ-sitosterol) and polar compounds. Polar fraction showed most effective activity against P. aeruginosa and nine other bacteria.
• Anticancer Activity: Ardisia elliptica plant extract was 1 of 9 Thai medicinal plants that exhibited antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay.
• Antidiarrheal / Antioxidant: Study evaluated a crude ethanol extract for antioxidant and antidiarrheal activities. Results showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed a significant protection against experimentally induced diarrhea by castor oil and magnesium sulfate.
• Toxicity Testing / Fruits: Study evaluated the safety of an ethanolic extract of A. elliptica fruits in animal models. Results showed no acute or subchronic toxicity in experimental animals.