Taingang daga

Family • Oxalidaceae - Oxalis corniculata Linn. - CREEPING WOOD SORREL - Tsa-chiang Ts'ao

Scientific names

Oxalis corniculata Linn.
Oxalis repens Thunb.
Oxalis acetosella Blanco

Common names

Daraisig (Bik.)
Kango (Pamp.)
Kanapa (Ig.)
Malabalugbug-dagis (Pamp.)
Marasiksik (Ilk.)
Piknik (Iv.)
Salamagi (Bon.)
Salmagi  (Bon.)
Susokoyili (Tag.)
Taingang-dage (Tag.)
Yayo (Pamp.)
Creeping oxalis (Engl.)
Creeping wood sorrel (Engl.)
Procumbent yellow sorrel (Engl.)
Tsa-chiang Ts’ao (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

ARABIC : Hhâmidah hhullwah, Hhamdîd.
CHINESE: Zuo jiang cao, Suan wei cao, Jio suan, Suan cu jiang.
DUTCH : Gehoornde klaverzuring.
ESTONIAN : Aed-jänesekapsas.
FINNISH : Tarhakäenkaali.
FRENCH : Alléluia, Alleluya, Oseille à trois feuilles, Oseille trois feuilles, Oxalide corniculée, Oxalis corniculée, Oxalis jaune, Oxalis vulgaire, Pain de coucou, Pain d’oiseau, Petit trêfle, Pied de pigeon, Surelle, Surelle jaune, Surette, Trèfle aigre, Trèfle jaune.
GERMAN: Gelber Sauerklee, Gehörnter Sauerklee, Horn-Sauerklee.
ITALIAN : Acetosella dei campi, Ossalide corniculata, Erba lujula, Trifoglio acetoso.
NEPALESE: Caremalaa, Carii amilo.
PORTUGUESE : Azedinha (Brazil), Erva-azeda, Erva-azeda-de-folha-pequena, Erva-azedinha, Erva-canária, Trevo-azedo, Trevo-azedo-bastardo, Trevo-azedo-da-Índia, Trevo-azedo-de-folhas-pequenas.
SPANISH : Acederilla, Vinagrera, Vinagrillo.
SWEDISH : Krypoxalis.
TURKISH : Eksi yonca.

Botany
Taingan-daga is a small variable, prostrate, creeping herb, somewhat pubescent with long, scattered hair, the stems creeping, up to 50 centimeters in length, usually rooting at the nodes. Leaves are trifoliate, with three small heart-shaped leaflets, their petioles 5 centimeters long or less, sessile. Leaflets are obcordate, 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters long and stalkless. At noontime, the leaflets droop like folded umbrellas. At night, the leaflets close and fold together. Flowers are yellow, one to several on each peduncle, subumbellately disposed, nearly 1 centimeters long. Petals are obcordate. Fruits are capsules, hairy, tomentose, subcylindric, 1 to 1.8 centimeters long, divided into minute segments with numerous black seeds the size of sand grains.

Taingang daga

Distribution
– In waste places, open grasslands, etc., from sea level to an altitude of 2,200 meters throughout the Philippines.
– Also occurs in the warmer parts of the Old World.

Taingang daga2

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Antifungal Activity from Water Extracts of Some Common Weeds / Pakistan Journ of Biol Sciences: 4(7):843-845, 2001

(2) Evaluation of the Antibacterial Potential of Some Plants Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria / S Satish et al / Advances in Biological Research 2 (3-4): 44-48, 2008

(3) Anti-bacterial efficacy of elite medicinal plants on urolithiasis inducing flora / Laikangbam Reena et al / International journal of food, agriculture and environment • 2009, vol. 7, no2, pp. 40-45

(4) Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used by Bantar of Bhaudaha, Morang, Nepal / E Acharya and B Pokhrel / Our Nature (2006)4:96-103

(5) Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity of Oxalis Corniculata Linn. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma on Mice / Kathiriya A, Das K, Kumar EP, Mathai K B / Iran J Cancer Prev 2010; 4: 157-65

(6) Cardioprotective effects of aqueous extract of Oxalis corniculata in experimental myocardial infarction / Abhilash PA, Nisha P, Prathapan A et al / Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Sep;63(6):535-40. Epub 2010 May 11.

(7) A novel galacto-glycerolipid from Oxalis corniculata kills Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia / Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy ISSN: 1098-6596

(8) Sorting Oxalis names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(9) Anxiolytic effect of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae) in mice / Gaurav Gupta, Imran Kazmi, Muhammad Afzal, Mahfoozur Rahman, Firoz Anwar* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S837-S840

(10) Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata / A Juvekar, S Sakat, S Wankhede, M Juvekar, M Gambhire / Planta Med 2009; 75 – PJ178 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234983\

(11) Ethno botanical, antibacterial and antifungal study of three medicinal plants of Morigaon district of Assam, India / Debajit Kalita, Jayabrata Saha and Bharthi, S. / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(4): 234-239

(12) Antidiabetic,Antihyperlipidaemic and Antioxidant Activity of Oxalis corniculata in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice / K.N.Agila1 R.kavitha* / Journal of Natural Sciences Research, Vol.2, No.7, 2012

(13) Gastroprotective Effect of Oxalis corniculata (Whole Plant) on Experimentally Induced Gastric Ulceration in Wistar Rats / S. S. Sakat, Preeti Tupe, and Archana Juvekar / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jan-Feb; 74(1): 48–53. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.102543

Taingang daga3Constituents
– Phytochemical study yielded tannins, palmitic acid, a mixture of oleic, linoleic, linolenic and stearic acids.
– Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, flavanoids, proteins, amino acids, and volatile oil.

Properties
Acidic tasting, cooling effect, astringent, appetizing, febrifuge, antibilious.
Antipyretic, blood refrigerant, tranquilizer.
Antiscorbutic.

Parts utilized
· Entire plant.
· May be collected throughout the year.
· Rinse, sun-dry, compress.
· Propagate by seeds or vegetative propagation.

Uses
Edibility
· In the Philippines, leaves used as salad ingredient.

Folkloric
· Juice of leaves used for cleansing wounds and for itches.
Taingang daga4· Cold-fever, enteritis-diarrhea, infection of the urinary tract, neurasthenia: Decoction of 30 to 60 gms of the prepared material.
· Sprains, bruises, poisonous snake bites: Apply poultice of pounded fresh materials.
· Burns, dermatoses of the lower limb, skin eczema: Rub fresh sap over afflicted area or use decoction of the fresh material as external wash.
· Used for removing corns, warts, and other excrescences on the skin.
· Poultice of bruised leaves, with or without water, applied over inflamed parts.
· Fresh juice of leaves used to relieve intoxication produced by Datura.
· Juice of leaves also used as application to remove fiber over the cornea or opacities of the cornea.
· Expressed leaf juice, made into sherbet with sugar, used for dysentery and rectal prolapse, and to allay thirst.
· Leaves boiled in buttermilk, used for chronic dysentery and enteritis.
· Juice considered antidotal to mercurial and arsenical poisoning; also used for burns, insect and scorpion bites, and eruptions.
· Plant considered antiscorbutic in China and India.
· Paste from leaves pounded with a little rice-flour applied to prickly heat. Also used for mouth and gum sores.
· In Java, leaves mixed with onion and salt, used for stomachaches. Juice used for coughs.
· In Nepal, leaves used ritually for stomachaches.
· In Zairean pharmacopoeia, used as antivenom: Paste of whole plant of O corniculata rubbed on the wound; swallow the juice of the masticated plant Make paste with a salted mixture of O corniculata and Aframomum sanguineum, and cover the bite.
· In traditional Indian medicine, used to treat epilepsy, dysentery and diarrhea.
· In Ayurvedic medicine, used for liver and digestive problems.

Study Findings
• Antibacterial: In a study of the traditional medicinal plants from North East India, OC showed antibacterial activity against E. coli. In a study of aqueous extracts of leaves of 46 plants, Oxalis corniculata was one of only 12 that exhibited antibacterial activity against test pathogens.
• Antibacterial: Leaf material was tested for antibacterial activity against three important pathovars of Xanthomas and fourteen human pathogenic bacteria. Results revealed significant antibacterial activity attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds.
• Anti-fertility: Report on the post-coital antifertility activity of the whole plant of Oxalis corniculata in female albino rats.
• Abortifacient: Report on the abortifacient activity of O corniculata.
• Antifungal: Study on the water extract of Oxalis corniculata showed it to be active against Aspergillus niger.
• Anti-Urolithiasis / Antibacterial: Of 17 plants studied, O corniculata was one of six with antibacterial efficacy that showed promising roles in the prevention and cure of urolithiasis.
• Anti-Epileptic: Study showed the methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata increased the monoamines on rat brain, which may decrease the susceptibility to MES and PTZ-induced seizures in rats.
• Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study of ethanol extract of Oxalis corniculata showed significant antitumor and antioxidant activities in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) induced in Swiss albino mice. There was effective inhibition of tumor growth in ascitic and solid tumor models.
• Antibacterial / Cream Formulation: Study of aqueous extract OC showed strong antibacterial activity especially with increased extract concentration. A cream formulation showed potential as a topical to protect the skin against S. aureus and E coli.
• Cardioprotective: In vitro studies confirmed that O. corniculata extract could protect the myocardium against ischemic insult and the protective effect can be attributed to its antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities.
• Novel Galacto-Glycerolipid / Anti-Amoebic / Anti-Giardia: Study of extracts identified several compounds that showed anti-amoebic activity in axenic cultures of E. histolytica. Of the different compounds, the strongest anti-amoebic activity was found with GGL (galacto-glycerolipid). GGL was also found to be effective in killing Giardia lamblia, another protist pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans.
• Anxiolytic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract for anxiolytic effect in mice using the open field test, elevated plus maze test, and anti-fighting test. Results suggest anxiolytic activity, consistent with the anxiolytic effects of diazepam.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of a methanol extract of whole plant. There was significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH and NO radicals and TBARS method. There was significant biphasic response in the paw edema induced by carrageenan.
• Antibacterial: In a study of three medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, the leaves and seeds extracts of Oxalis corniculata showed high antibacterial activity against E coli and Bacillus subtilis.
• Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant effect of O. corniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Results showed free radical scavenging, and antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects. Effects were compared to glibenclamide as reference drug.
• Hepatoprotective: Study showed a hydroalcoholic extract of Hummaz (O. corniculata) counteracted the hepatotoxic effect induced by CCl4 and PHH. Although the protection by Silymarin seemed relatively greater, Hummaz can be used as hepatoprotective agent in some liver disorders.
• Gastroprotective / Antiulcer: Study investigated a methanolic extract of O. corniculata in pylorus ligated and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerations in Wistar rats. Results suggest OC possesses significant antisecretory and antiulcer effects.

Availability
Wild-crafted.