Tañgal

Family • Rhizophoraceae - Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. - YELLOW MANGROVE - Hai jia zi

Scientific names

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob.
Ceriops candolleana Arn.
Rhizophora tagal Perr.
Rhizophora timoriensis DC.
Rhizophora candel Blanco

Other vernacular names

BRUNEI: Tengar.
CAMBODIA: Smae.
CHINA: Jiao guo mu, Hai jia zi, Hai dian zi.
INDONESIA: Tengar, Tanggala tutu, Tingi.
MALAYSIA: Tengar.
SINGAPORE: Tengar.
THAILAND: Prong, Prong daeng, Samae.

Common names

Ligasen (Tag.)
Magtoñgod (P. Bis.)
Pakat (Tagb.)
Roñgon (Sbl.)
Ruñgon (Sbl.)
Tagasa (Tag.)
Tañgag (S. L. Bis.)
Tañgal (Tag., Bag., Pang., Sul.)
Tañgal-lalaki (Tag.)
Tanghal (Tag., P. Bis.)
Tigasan (Tag.)
Tonggi (Kuy.)
Toñgog (Bag., S. L. Bis.)
Toñgong (Sub.)
Tuñgod (P. Bis., C. Bis.)
Tuñgog (P. Bis.)
Tuñguds (Sul.)
Yellow mangrove (Engl.)
Spurred mangrove (Engl.)
Jian zi shu (Chin.)

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Botany
Tañgal is a small tree growing up to 8 meters or less in height, with many buttresses at the base. Bark is dark red. Leaves are ovate, 5 to 7.5 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, blunt at the tip and pointed at the base. Flowers are about 6 millimeters in length, borne on short stalks. Calyx lobes are linear, with pointed tips. Petals are five, smooth; tips are flat or notched, with three of four club-shaped appendages. Stamens are ten. Fruit is small, club-shaped or subovoid, surrounded near the base by the reflexed segments of the calyx.

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Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. / Protologue – Philipp. Journ. Sci., Bot. 3: 306 (1908). / Protabase Record Display

(2) A new dolabrane-type diterpene from Ceriops tagal / Ouyang XW, Wang XC, Yue QX, Hu LH / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jan;5(1):9-12.

(3) Three new lupane-type triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / Li-Hong Hu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 12, Issue 7 July 2010 , pages 576 – 581 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2010.485566

(4) In vitro antitumor activity of triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / He, Lei, Wang, You-Shao and Wang, Qing-Ji / Natural Product Research, Volume 21, Number 14, December 2007 , pp. 1228-1233(6)

(5) Antihyperglycaemic activity of Ceriops tagal in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Priti Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar et al / MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Volume 17, Numbers 2-7, 74-84 / DOI: 10.1007/s00044-007-9038-3

(6) Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf and Bark Extracts Against Human Pathogens / Natarajan Arivuselvan et al / Advances in Biological Research 5 (5): 251-254, 2011

(7) Stimulatory Efrect of Ceriops tagal on hexose uptake in L6 muscle cells in culture / Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh Sharma et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 22, No 7, May 2008, 592-599

(8) Comparative anticancer activity of dolaborane diterpenes from the roots of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae) / M Chacha / International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 6, No 2 (2012)

(9) Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Robinson / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(10) Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemical analysis in the stem and leaves of Ceriops tagal mangroves / Jadhav B.L.,* Quraishi Firdaus Mukhtar and Pagare B.G. / Research Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (9) September (2013)

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Distribution
– Abundant in mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines.
– Also occurs in India to Malaya.

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Constituents
– Aerial parts yielded three new lupane-type triterpenes, 3a-O-trans-feruloylbetulinic acid, 3a-O-trans-coumaroylbetulinic acid and 3ß-O-cis-feruloylbetulin, with 10 known triterpenes.
– Phytochemical screening of stems and leaves yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils.

Properties
Whole plant is astringent.
Bark is astringent, hemostatic, and used as quinine substitute.

Parts used
Bark.

Uses 
Folkloric
Decoction of the bark used to stop hemorrhages; applied to malignant ulcers.
Bark used for diabetes.
On the African Coast, decoction of shoots used as substitute for quinine.
Malay women use a decoction of bark in childbirth.
In India, bark used as hemostatic.
In Malaysia, bark lotion used for ulcers and abdominal ailments.

Others
Dye: In eastern Africa and Asia, stem bark used for dyeing and tanning. In SE Asia, source of “soga browns” of Javanese batiks.
Preservative: In fishing communities, bark extract used to preserve nets and sails from decay.
Wood: Poles, planks and wattlework for house building.

Study Findings
• Dolabrane Diterpene / Tagalsin / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated a new dolabrane-type diterpene, tagalsin, together with six known analogues. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cancer cell line.
• Anti-Tumor / Triterpenes: Study yielded four triterpenes. Compounds 1 and 3 were effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and growth of H-7402 and HeLa.
• Antihyperglycemic: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of the crude extract of Ceriops tagal showed significant improvement of glucose tolerance in sucrose-loaded normal rats and a 10.9% reduction of hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
• Antihyperglycemic / Hexose Uptake Stimulation: Study on the effect of an ethanolic extract and its fractions on H-2-deoxyglucose uptake by cultured L6 rat muscle cells showed enhancement of glucose uptake comparable with insulin and metformin. Results suggest the n-hexane soluble fraction might be a potential source of new antihyperglycemic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark extracts of Ceriops tagal and Pemphis acidula against human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, V parahemolyticus, S aureus and V cholera. P acidula showed higher antibacterial potency than C tagal. In all the tests, the crude methanolic extracts showed better inhibition.
• Antitumor: Dolabrane diterpenes of Ceriops tagal exhibited significant antitumor effect in the LLC mice probably through induced apoptosis of tumor cell and the lower expression of the tumor-associated transcription factor NF-KPp65.
• Dolaborane Diterpenes / Tagalsins / Roots / Anticancer: Study investigated the anticancer activity of tagalsins A-G isolated from the roots of C. tagal. Tagalsins A- G induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 enzyme. Tagalsin A was the most active. Results suggest a potential for the development of anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of actions.
• Antioxidant / Stems and Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and phytochemicals in stems and leaves of C. tagal. Study confirmed the free radical scavenging potential of C. tagal. The leaves showed higher dose-dependent reducing power. Phytoscreening yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils.

Availability
Wild-crafted.