Tikiu

Family • Cyperaceae - Scirpus grossus Linn. f. - GIANT BULRUSH - Da piao cao

Scientific names

Scirpus aemulans Steud.
Scirpus grossus Linn. f.
Scirpus kysoor Roxb.
Cyperus difformis Blanco
Schoenoplectus grossus (L.f.) Palla
Actinoscirpus grossus (L.f.) Goetgh & D.A. Simpson
Da piao cao (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

INDONESIA: Mensiang, Walingi, Wlingi, Lingi, Wlingen.
KHMER: Meum plong, Kak chrung.
LAOS: Hua haeo yaeng.
MALAYSIA:Rumput menderong.
THAI: Kok, Kok prue, Kok samlien, Ta kraab.
VIETNAMESE: Lac her, Chi c[os]i d[uf]i.

Common names

Agas (Bik.)
Baga-as (P. Bis.)
Baki-baki (P. Bis.)
Balakbak (Pang.)
Balañgot (P. Bis.)
Bangkuang (Bik.)
Ragiudiu (Bik.)
Tikug (Mbo.)
Tikiu (Tag.)
Titiu (Tag.)
Greater club rush (Engl.)
Giant bullrush (Engl.)

Botany
Tikiu is a very coarse, large, erect, glabrous, aquatic or marshy herb. Stems are triangular, 1.5 to 2 metershigh or more. Leaves are few, basal, often half as long as the stem, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, the leaflike bracts subtending the inflorescence, spreading, broad, 30 to 60 centimeters long. Inflorescence is corymbose, and 10 to 18 centimeters long. Spikelets are very numerous, brown, ovoid, and 5 to 8 millimeters long. Nuts are obovoid, trigonous, dark brown or black, and shining.

Distribution
– In fresh-water swamps, edges of ponds, and in newly opened rice lands at low altitudes from central Luzon to Mindanao in most provinces and islands.
– Native to Southeast Asia.
– Naturalized in Australia, Borneo, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indochina, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Properties
– Root considered sweet, colling, laxative, tonic to the liver, astringent, antidiarrheal, antiemetic.

Parts used
Roots.

Uses 
Folkloric
– Root is astringent, and is given to check diarrhea and vomiting.
– Roots used against infection, burning sensatives, fevers and gonorrhea.
– Used as diuretic.

Others
• Veterinary: In India, sap extracted from leaves and stem of S. grossus is mixed with garlic, and the paste applied topically for cattle wounds.
• Basketry: Stems, dried and flattened, are used for making mats, baskets, etc.

Study Findings
• Radioactive Pollution Indicator: The sea weed (Scirpus grossus Linn ) was used as an experimental plant to indicate radioactive pollution in estuaries. The results showed that the accumulation of 137Cs,65Zn, 60Co, 50Fe and 54Mn by Scirpus grossus was proportional to their concentration in the soil.
• Domestic Wastewater Treatment: Study examined the ability of Scirpus grossus planted in a constructed wetland to treat domestic wastewater. Results showed S. grossus has great potential in removing pollutants in constructed wetlands in tropical regions.
• Caloric Value Enhancement after Lead Phytotoxicity Test: Study showed the use of the plant as contaminant uptake in phytoremediation can enhance the caloric value of the plant. It presents a potential use as bioenergy alternative according to enhancement of its caloric value.
• Phytotoxicity Test on Diesel-Contaminated Water: Study showed S. grossus and rhizobacteria in a subsurface flow system has potential in reclaiming hydrocarbon-contaminated water through enhancement of rhizobacteria by S. grossus in degrading hydrocarbon.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) A study on Scirpus grossus Linn as an indicator of radioactive pollution in estuaries / Cai Fulong Chen Ying Xu Pian Lai Zhaocai / DOI cnki:ISSN:0253-3219.0.1992-12-009

(2) Effectiveness of Scirpus grossus in Treatment of Domestic Wastes in a Constructed Wetland / K. B. S. N. Jinadasaa; Norio Tanakab; M. I. M. Mowjoodc; D. R. I. B. Werellagamad / Journal of Freshwater Ecology
Volume 21, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 603 – 612 / DOI: 10.1080/02705060.2006.9664121

(3) Ethno Veterinary practices among the rural people of Ganjam District (Orissa) India: A Case Study On some Common Veterinary Ailments / Dr Dibakar Mishra, Polasara, India

(4) Phytotoxicity test of Scirpus grossus on diesel-contaminated water using a subsurface flow system / Israa Abdulwahab Al-Baldawia, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah , Fatihah Suja, Nurina Anuar, Mushrifah Idris / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.01.016,