Family • Alismaceae - Sagittaria sagittifolia Linn. - COMMON ARROWHEAD - Ci gu

Scientific names

Sagittaria sagittifolia Linn.
Alisma sagittifolium Llanos
Sagittaria aquatica Lam.
Sagittaria sinensis Sim.
Sagittaria trifolia var. L. var. sinensis Sims
Ci gu (Chin.)

Common names

Gauai-gauai (S. L. Bis.)
Tikog (Bik.)
Arrowleaf (Engl.)
Common arrowhead (Engl.)
Swamp potato (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

DUTCH: Pijlkruid.
FINNISH: Pystykeiholehti.
FRENCH: Flèche d’eau, Sagittaire, Sagittaire à feuilles en flèche.
GERMAN: Pfeilkraut, Spitzes Pfeilkraut .
ITALIAN: Erba saetta.
JAPANESE: Seiyou omodaka.
KOREAN: Keladi air.
PORTUGUESE: Erva-do-pântano (Brazil), Sagitária.
RUSSIAN: Strelolist obyknovennyi, Strelolist plavaiushchii, Strelolist strelolistnyi.
SPANISH: Cola de golondria, Cola de golondrina, Colomo, Erva frecha, Papa del agua, Saeta, Sagitaria.
SWEDISH: Pilblad.
THAI: Khaa khiat, Phak khaang kai.


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) The Protective Effect of Sagittaria Sagittifolia Against Cadmium-mediated Acute Liver Damage / Lu Zu-fu, Huang Fang et al / Journal of Fujian Medical University / 2001-02

(2) Sagittariol: A new diterpene from Sagittaria sagittifolia / Shekhar Chandra Sharma, J S Tandon and M M Dhar / Phytochemistry, Vol14, Issue 4, April 1975, Pages 1055-1057 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(75)85185-5

(3) Aquatic / semi-aquatic plants used in herbal remedies in the wetlands of Manipur, Northeastern India / Alka Jain, S Roshnibala et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 6(2), April 2007, pp 346-351

(4) ent-Rosane and Labdane Diterpenoids from Sagittaria sagittifolia and Their Antibacterial Activity against Three Oral Pathogens / Xue-ting Liu, Qin Pan, Yao Shi et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (2), pp 255–260 / DOI: 10.1021/np050479e

(5) Sorting Sagittaria names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Tikog is an aquatic plant, erect, stemless and usually perennial. Leaves are arrow-shaped, 10 to 35 centimeters long; the petioles are long, often long than the leaves, with 3 to 5 whorls of 3 to 5 flowers, each 1 to 2 centimeters in diameter; the lower whorls are female, and the upper, male, with longer pedicels. Petals are white, with yellow center. Achenes are flat, obliquely obovate, apiculate, with broad wings.


– An aquatic plant found in fresh-water swamps, rice paddies, etc., at low and medium altitudes In the Luzon Provinces of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay and Sorsogon; and in Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao.
– Also occurs in Europe through Asia to Japan and southward to Java.

– Study isolated a new diterpene, sagittariol, characterized as labda-7,14-dien-13(S,17-diol.

– Acrid.

– Ingestion of raw tubers may cause fluxes, diarrhea, weakness and hemorrhoids.
– Pregnant women should not eat them.

Parts used
Tubers, rhizomes, leaves.

– Tubers are edible.
– In Japan and China, a variety with starchy tubers is cultivated in rice paddies along small streams. The same form is also cultivated in the Trinidad Valley.
– In northeastern India, roots are steamed with sugar or preparedpakora along with besan.

– Tubers used for deficient lochia and retention of the placenta, as well as in gravel.
– Bruised leaves applied to foul sores, snakes and insect bites.
– Powdered leaves applied to relieve itching.
– Tubers used for skin diseases.
In Indo-China, rhizome is grated in vinegar and applied as a poultice for boils and abscesses.
– Decoction of rhizome used for dog and snake bites.
– Leaves mashed in molasses used for throat and tongue soreness and in breast inflammation.
– In northeastern India fresh root paste with a spoonful of honey used for coughs.

Study Findings
• Hepatoprotective: Study in Sprague-Dawley rats showed pretreatment with Sagittaria sagittifolia extract can militate cadmium-induced liver damage through decreasing the expression of TNF-a mRNA in the process of acute cadmium exposure. Study showed S. sagittifolia pretreatment was more effective than vitamin E in protecting against cadmium-induced acute liver injury, possibly through enhancement of antioxidant and detoxification liver processes.
• Antibacterial / Diterpenoids: Study of the whole plant yielded seven new ent-rosane diterpenoids, sagittines A-G with one new labdane diterpene. Compounds 1-4 showed antibacterial activity against oral pathogens Strep mutans and Actinomyces naeslundiis.
• c-fos Induction: Study results suggest c-fos induction is independent of oxidative stress or inflammation in the liver during the process of acute Cd exposure in rats.
• Terpenoid / Sandaracopimaric Acid / Immunosuppressive: Study of methanol extract isolated a terpenoid, sandaracopimaric acid, showed to have good immunosuppressive action.