Tindalo

Family • Fabaceae - Cassia javanica Linn. - APPLEBLOSSOM SHOWER - Ji guo jue ming


Scientific names

Cassia javanica L.
Cathartocarpus javanicus Pers.

Common names

Anahuhan (Tag.)
Antsoan (Tag.)
Bagiroro (Tag.)
Tindalo (Tag.)
Appleblossom shower (Engl.)
Java cassia (Engl.)
Rainbow shower (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE:Ji guo jue ming ?
FRENCH: Cassie à fleurs roses.
HINDI: Java ki rani.
MALAY: Bebusok, Bobondelan (Indonesia), Boking-boking (Sumatra), Busok-busok, Dulang dulang, Kaju dulang (Java), Sebusok, Trengguli (Indonesia).
MARATHI: Mazeli.
THAI: Kalalphruk, Khilek chawa, Khilek yawa.
TAMIL: Konne, Vakai

Botany
Cassia javanica is a medium-sized tree growing up to 15 meters tall, with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. Leaflets are 5 centimeters long, obtuse, and smooth on the upper surface, with short, fine hairs below. Flowers are light to dark pink. Fruit is an elongated pod, woody, brownish-black, up to 30 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide.

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Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Cassia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(2) Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. / Kumavat UC, Shimpi SN, Jagdale SP. / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2012 Jan;3(1):47-51. doi: 10.4103/2231-4040.93562.

(3) REVIEW ARTICLE / Cassia Javanica Linn: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile / Chittam K.P., Deore S.L. / Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2 (1) 2013, 33-35

(4) ent-Epiafzelechin-(4α→8)-epiafzelechin extracted from Cassia javanica inhibits herpes simplex virus type 2 replication / Hua-Yew Cheng, Chien-Min Yang, Ta-Chen Lin, Den-En Shieh and Chun-Ching Lin / J Med Microbiol February 2006 vol. 55 no. 2 201-206 / doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.46110-0

(5) Cassia javanica / Agroforestree database / World Agroforestry Centre

Cassia nodosa is very similar to Cassia javanica, differing mostly from the latter in the absence of spines on the trunk and branches.

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Distribution
– Introduced.
– Cultivated as ornamental tree.
– Native to tropical regions of Asia.
– Distributed naturally from India to Malaysia, Indonesia, and China.

Constituents
– Leaves reported to yield secondary metabolites: flavones, sterols, hydrocarbons, anthraquinone, glycosides.
– Seeds yield chrysophanol, physcion, two new anthroquinone 1, 5 dihydroxy- 4, 7 dimethoxy, 2 methyl antroquinone 3-O-α-L (-) rhamnopyranoside and 1, 3, 6, 7, 8- pentahydroxy-4- methoxy-2-methyl anthraquinone, and chrysophanol and physcion.
– Root bark yields quercetin and 2 new leucoanthocyanins, leucocyanidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyran- oside and leucocyanidin-3-O-α-L-(-) rhamnopyranoside.

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Properties
– Considered purgative
– Antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial.

Parts used
Pods, leaves, flowers.

Uses 
Folkloric
– No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
– In India, pods used as purgative.
– Pods used as substitute for Cassia fistula.
– In Chinese medicine, herb used to reduce fever, regulate chi and lubricate the intestine. Also used to treat gastric pain, cold, malaria, measles, chicken pox and constipation.
– Ripe pods used as traditional laxative throughout the Malesian area. In Thailand, bark and seeds used for fever.

Others
– Industrial gum: Seeds can be used as source of industrial gum.

Study Findings
• Hypoglycemic: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Unlike acute, subacute treatment showed highly significant reduction of blood glucose (37.62%) of diabetic rats in 10 days, compared to standard drug (63.51%). Preclinically, results suggest C. javanica can be an effective hypoglycemic agent.
• Herpes Simplex Virus Inhibition: ent-Epiafzelechi-(4aR8)-epiafzelechin extracted from C. javanicaexhibited various modes of action in suppressing HSV-2 replication, prevented HSV-2 from penetrating the cell and interfered with replication at the late stage of its life cycle.
• Antimicrobial: C. javanica subsp. nodosa flower and leaf extracts showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa and S. epidermis.

Availability
Wild-crafted.