Tsampaka

Family • Magnoliaceae - Michelia champaca Linn. - JOY PERFRUME TREE - Huang yu lan

Scientific names

Michelia champaca Linn.
Michelia pilifera Bak. F.
Magnolia champaca

Other vernacular names

HINDI” Champa.
JAVA: Chempaka, Chepaka, Pechari, Lochari, Kantil, Semendara.
MALAYSIA: Chempaka, cempaka merah, Chempa, Cempaka kuning, Jampaka.
SUNDANESE: Champaka.
SUMATRA: Champaga.
THAI: Champah, Champi.

Common names

Champaka (Tag.)
Champaka-laag (Sul.)
Champaka-pula (Tag.)
Sampaka (Tag.)
Tsampaka (Tag.)
Tsampakang pula (Tag.)
Champaca (Engl.)
Joy perfume tree (Engl)
Yellow jade orchid tree (Engl)
Huang yu lan (Chin.)

Botany
Tsampakang-pula is a small tree, growing to a height of 6 meters or more. Bark is smooth and grey; the wood, soft with a white sapwood and a light olive-brown heartwood. Young shoots are silky; branchlets are appressed-pubescent. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 12 to 20 centimeters long, 2.5 to 6 centimeters wide, gradually narrowing upward to a long pointed apex. Flowers are very fragrant, pale yellow or orange, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Perianth segments are usually 15 to 20, deciduous, in whorls of 3, the outer ones oblong, the inner ones linear. Fruiting spike is 8 to 15 centimeters long. Seeds are 1 to 2, brown when old, polished and variously angled.

Tsampakang Pula

Distribution
– Cultivated for its flowers and ornamental use.
– Native to the Philippines, India and Java.

Tsampakang Pula2

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Cytotoxic agents from Michelia champaca and Talauma ovata: Parthenolide and costunolide / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences • Vol 66 Issue 6, Pages 883 – 884 / 10.1002/jps.2600660642 DOI

(2) Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of Michelia champaca Linn., (white variety), Ixora brachiata Roxb. and Rhynchosia cana (Willd.) D.C. flower extract. / Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Dec;35(12):1310-4.

(3) Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.002 / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol109, Issue 2, 19 January 2007, Pages 331-337

(4) Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora / Oumadevi Rangasam y et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 109, Issue 2, 19 January 2007, Pages 331-337 /doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.002

(5) Chemical studies of on flowers of Michelia champaca / S Kapoor and R K Jaggi / Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences • Year : 2004 | Volume : 66 | Issue : 4 | Page : 403-406

(6) Michelia champaka / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(7) Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn / E. Edwin Jarald, S.B. Joshi, and D.C. Jain / Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 40(6): 256–260. / doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.45151

(8) Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Various Extracts of Michelia champaca Linn flowers / R. Vivek Kumar, Satish Kumar, S. Shashidhara, S. Anitha and M. Manjula / World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (4), 413-418, 2011

(9) Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer property and chemical composition of michelia champaca seed and flower extracts / Lee Seong Wei, and Wendy Wee, and Julius Young Fu Siong, and Desy Fitrya Syamsumir / Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 (1). pp. 19-24, 2011

(10) DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF MICHELIA CHAMPACA L. LEAVES AND STEM BARK IN RATS / Hafsa Ahmad, Vasundhara Saxena, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta / Pharmacologyonline 2: 568-574 (2011).

(11) Effect of Michelia champaca Linn on pylorous ligated rats / A. R. Mullaicharam, M. Surendra kumar / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (02); 2011: 60-64

(12) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Leaves of Michelia champaca Investigated on Acute Inflammation Induced Rats / Sumeet GUPTA *, Kritika MEHLA, Devesh CHAUHAN & Anroop NAIR / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 30 (4, 2011, pp 819-22

Tsampakang Pula4Constituents
– Volatile oil, 0.2% – cineol, iso-eugenol, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-cresol methyl ether; alkaloids.
– The bark contains a volatile oil, fixed oil, resin, tannin, mucilage, starch and sugar.
– Studies have reported an alkaloid in M. parvifolia and M. champaca.
– Champacol, a camphor, has been obtained from champaca wood by distillation.
– flower, seeds and bark contain a bitter and aromatic principle.
– A study reports a volatile oil from the leaves.

Tsampakang Pula3

Characteristics
– The bark is bitter, tonic, astringent, antiperiodic and alterative.
– Root is purgative and the root-bark, emmenagogue, purgative and demulcent.
– The flowers are stimulant, tonic, carminative, demulcent and diuretic.

Parts used
Leaves, root, root-bark, flowers, fruit and oil.

Uses
Folkloric
– Leaves applied to indolent swellings.
– Leaf juice used as vermifuge.
– Leaf juice with honey taken orally to relive colic.
– Decoction used in rheumatism, angina, and pharyngitis.
– Decoction of bark used for fevers.
– Powdered bark also used for fevers.
– For rheumatism, crushed leaves are mixed with oil and applied on affected joints.
– Root bark used as demulcent, emmenagogue and purgative.
– An infusion or decoction of the flowers used for dyspepsia, nausea and fevers.
– The flowers, macerated in sweet oil, used for cephalalgia and ophthalmia and fetid nasal discharges; vertigo, rheumatism and gout.
– Seeds are used for rheumatism and for healing cracks in the soles of the feet.
– In Mexico, flowers, seeds and bark used for renal affections and as abortifacient.
– In India, flower buds used for diabetes and kidney diseases.
– Woen of Chhattisgarh in India use the plant for fertility regulation.

Others
• Perfume: Flowers yield an essential oil used in perfume. Used for scenting rooms, perfumed floral necklaces, as floral decorations strewn on bridal beds, and perfuming clothes in storage. Also used to scent hair oils.
• Timber: Yields a fine timber for construction, toy making, carving.

Study Findings
• Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study showed ethanol extract of bark of Michelia champaca showed activity against human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx test system. Active constituents isolated were sesquiterpene lactones – parthenolide and costunolide.
• Antiinflammatory : Study of the methanolic extracts of flowers of M. champaca showed anti-inflammatory activity presumed to be due to the presence of flavonoids in the flowers.
• Antidiabetic: Study of the ethanolic extract of M champaca exhibited significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Results support the traditional use of the plant for various diabetic-associated complications.
• Antifungal: Study of crude extracts of M champaca yielded the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum.
• Leishmanicidal Activity : One of the timber extracts that showed potent leishmanicidal activity.
• Wound Healing Activity : Study showed the co-administration of dexamaethasone and M champaca significantly increased the breaking strength and increased hydroxyproline content. Results conclude M champaca is an effective agent for healing wounds in immunocompromised patients.
• Antiinfective Activity : Study showed the dichlormethane extract of M champac and A madagascarienjse showed the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum; the crude extracts showed activity against several phytophathogenic filamentous fungi.
• Antihyperglycemic Activity / Flower Buds: Study evaluated various extracts of flower buds for antidiabetic activity. The ethanolic extract of M champaca exhibited significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Results support the traditional use of the plant for various diabetic-associated complications.
• Flower Phytochemicals : Study of flowers of M champaca yielded flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid glycoside together with 3-sitosterol, unsaturated aliphatic ketones and hydrocarbons.
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Flower: Study showed M. champaca flower extract possesses strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
• Wound Healing / Flower: Ethanolic extract of flowers was evaluated for burn wound healing activity in rats. Oral and topical administration showed significant improvement in rate of wound contraction, with reduction in period of epithelialisation. Dexaethasone-suppressed epithelialisation was significantly reversed by topical and oral treatment.
• Antimicrobial and Anticancer Constituents: Study was carried out to characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of M. champaca seed and flower extracts. Findings indicate that the medicinal values of champaca seed and flower extracts in terms of antimicrobial and anticancer properties are promising.
• Diuretic / Leaves and Stem Bark: Aqueous extracts of stem bark exhibited better diuretic potential in comparison to leaves extract, with the higher dose evoking pronounced diuresis even greater than standard furosemide (Lasix) in terms of Na+ and K+ concentration, and approximating furosemide in terms of urine volume.
• Anti-Ulcer: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers were evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property. against NSAID-aspirin induced ulcer. Results showed significant reduction of gastric juice, total acidity, ulcer index, and elevation of gastric pH. Flower aqueous extract showed maximum efficacy followed by leaf alcoholic, flower alcoholic, and leaf aqueous extracts.
• Antibacterial / Radical Scavenging Activity: Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in the S|DPPH radical scavenging assay. The ethyl acetate extract was more effective against all bacterial strains tested.
• ß-Sitosterol / Leaves and Stem Bark: ß-sitosterol is an important plant sterol reported to possess chemopreventive and adaptogenic properties. Study showed the leaves to be the richest source of ß-sitosterol in Michelia champaca.
• Antifertility: Study evaluated the anti-fertility activity of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract in female rats. Results showed significant antifertility effect which may be due to inhibition of implantation and estrogenic effect due to some phytoconstituents.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts on carrageenan-induced inflammation rat model. Results showed highly significant maximum inhibition concluding anti-inflammatory activity in pro-inflammatory conditions.
• Antihemintic: Study evaluated the antihelmintic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves against test worms Pheretima posthuma. Both extracts exhibited greater P (paralysis time) and D (death time) than the standard.
• Cardioprotective / Flowers: Study evaluated the cardioprotective potential of methanolic extract of M. champaca flowers on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia in male albino wistar rats. Pretreatment with various doses showed dose-dependent cardioprotective benefits with restoration of biochemical parameters and histopathological confirmation of biochemical findings.

Availability
Cultivated
Wild-crafted.