Family • Rutaceae - Clausena lansium (Lour.) - WAMPEE - Huang pi guo
|Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels|
|Quinaria lansium Lour.|
|Cookia wampi Blanco|
|Cookia punctata Sonn.|
|Clausena wampi Oliv.|
|Clausena punctata Rehder & Wils.|
|Chinese clausena (Engl.)|
|Fool’s curry leaf (Engl.)|
|Huang pi guo (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Huang pi, Huang pi zi.|
|FRENCH: Vampi, Wampi.|
|JAPANESE: Kurausena ranjuumu, Kurauzena ranshiumu, Wanpii.|
|KHMER: Kantrop, Sômz maf’ai.|
|LAOTIAN: Somz mafai.|
|MALAY: Wampi, Wang-pei, Wampoi|
|RUSSIAN: Klauzena tochechnaia, Vampi.|
|THAI: Ma fai chin, Som ma fai, Mafai chin, Ueng-tuai, Ueng-tua, Ueng-phuai.|
|VIETNAMESE: Hoàng bi, Hồng bì, Quất hồng bì.|
Uampi is a small tree about 7 meters high. Leaves are dark green, pinnate, with 5 to 9 leaflets. Each leaflet has a stalk about 3 millimeters long, the blade ovate-elliptic, lanceolate or ovate, about 7 to 10 centimeters or more in length, pointed at the tip, much wider on one side of the base. Flowers are borne in terminal panicles, white, about 14 millimeters in diameter. Petals are five, white, and boat-shaped. Calyx is small and five-parted. Stamens are 10, with conspicuous yellow anthers. Ovary is five-celled, borne on a short stalk, covered with hairy nobs, and surrounded by a short style terminating in a rounded stigma. Fruit is ivory yellow, rounded, about 2 centimeters in diameter, very slightly flattened at the base, somewhat rounded at the tip, and borne in bunches. Skin of the fruit is thin and soft, dotted with minute, raised, somewhat darker-colored spots, covered with short hairs, and marked by five, usually very inconspicuous, longitudinal lines which are lighter in color than the remainder of the fruit. Flesh is yellowish white, soft, juicy, somewhat acid in taste; cross-section shows a division into five segments by thin, white lines. Usually one to four of the segments contain a single, rather large, flattened green seed, attached near the apex of the fruit.
– Uncommon cultivation in the Philippines.
– Introduced from and commonly cultivated in China for its edible fruit.
– Known in the Philippines earlier than 1837; reintroduced from China in 1912.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Pharmacological properties of the extract and some isolated compounds of Clausena lansium stem bark: Anti-trichomonal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects / A C Adebajo et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 122, Issue 1, 25 February 2009, Pages 10-19 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.11.015
(2) Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Clausena lansium from Hainan Island, China / Jiayuan Zhao et al / Z. Naturforsch. 59c, 153Ð156 (2004);
(3) Hepatoprotective action of nine constituents isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium in mice / Geng Tao Liu et al / Drug Development Research • Volume 39 Issue 2, Pages 174 – 178 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2299(199610)39:2<174::AID-DDR10>3.0.CO;2-C
(4) Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel / K Nagendra Prasad et al / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology • Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 612805, 6 pages
(5) New coumarins from Clausena lansium twigs / Wisanu Maneerat, Uma Prawat et al / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.21 no.4 SÃ£o Paulo 2010 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532010000400012
(6) Chemical constituents of Clausena lansium / Zhao Q, Li C et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Apr;35(8):997-1000.
(7) Study on antiallergic activity of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels leaves extracts with different solvent / Zhao Feng-Li, Li Jie-rong et al / ?DOI? CNKI:SUN:SPKJ.0.2009-01-034
(8) Antioxidant and anticancer activities of 8-hydroxypsoralen isolated from wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] peel / K Nagendra, Haihui Xie et al / Food Chemistry, Volume 118, Issue 1, 1 January 2010, Pages 62-66 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.073
(9) Study on amino acids from the fruit of Clausena lansium / Zhang YM, Huang YF, Huang JW, Li RZ, Liu J. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Sep;29(9):921-4.
(10) Protective effect of Bu-7, a flavonoid extracted from Clausena lansium, against rotenone injury in PC12 cells. / Li BY, Yuan YH, Hu JF, Zhao Q, Zhang DM, Chen NH. / Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011 Nov;32(11):1321-6. doi: 10.1038/aps.2011.119.
• Essential oil extracted yielded: (1) Leaves: ß-santalol, bisabolol, methyl santalol, ledol and sinensal Flowers: ß-santalol, 9-octadecenamide, sinensal (3) Seeds: phellandrene, limonene, p-menth-1-en-4-ol.
• Study yielded seven compounds: corchoionoside C, 1′-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (2R,3S)-3-hydroxynodakenetin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-scillabioside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1–>2)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1–>6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mauritianin.
• Study isolated a novel oxirane carboxamide from a hexane extract.
• Study of fresh and dried fruits of Clausena lansium showed an abundance of amino acids, the total free and hydrolyzed amino was 4.8 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in fresh fruit; 4.6 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in dried fruit.
• Bitter, pungent-tasting, slightly warming, anti-cold, antifebrile, improves circulation and analgesic.
• Considered stomachic, cooling and anthelmintic.
• Condiment: as substitute for Curry leaf tree.
• Fruit used to make juice and beverage.
• In China, a much esteemed fruit, made into delicious preserves.
• For influenza, cold, malaria: use 15 to 30 gms dried leaves in decoction.
•For gastric pains, abdominal colic pains: use drupe, 9-15 gms in decoction.
• In some countries, used for bronchitis, malaria, hepatitis, gastrointestinal inflammation.
• In China, used for bronchitis. Leaf decoction used as hair shampoo.
• In Tonkin, the dried fruit is used in bronchitis.
• Leaves have been used for cough, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases; fruit for digestive disorders and seeds for GI disorders and chronic gastrointestinal ulcers.
• Stem Bark / Anti-trichomonal / Anti-diabetic / Anti-inflammatory / Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study isolated compounds with various biologic activities: Imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole showed anti-trichomonal activity; Imperatorin and chalepin were the active constituents responsible for insulin release and anti-diabetic activity. Results also exhibited antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects.
• Antinociceptive / Neuroleptic: ß-santalol, the main constituent of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and sarcocarps has antinociceptive CNS effects and can be considered a neuroleptic.
• Insecticidal: Phellandrene, the main constituent of the seed oil has been shown to be insecticidal.
• Hepatoprotective: Study showed the hepatoprotective actions of eight of nine compounds isolated from the leaves of C lansium, decreasing the hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide and acetaminophen in mice
• Antifungal / Antiproliferative / HIV Reverse Transcriptase-Inhibition: Study isolated from the seeds of CL, a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor which exhibited antifungal, anti-HIV reverse transcriptase and antiproliferative activities.
• Antioxidant / Anticancer: A study of various extracts and fractions showed the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, reducing power and superoxide scavenging activity. Also, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human cancer cell lines – gastric carcinoma, hepatocellular liver carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma, higher than cisplatin. Results suggest wampee peel as a potential source of natural antioxidants and possible pharmaceutical supplement.
• Antioxidant / Anticancer / 8-Hydroxypsoralen: Study yielded a pure compound – 8-hydroxypsoralen from the wampee peel. It exhibited good scavenging activities against DPPH radical and superoxide anion and also showed potent proliferation inhibition against seceral human cancer cell lines (hepatocellular liver carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma).
• Pharmacologic Properties / Biologic Activities: A study showed the superiority of the dichlormethane extract over the methanolic extract. Various activities showed were significant anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-trichomonal activities. Its antidiabetic action was through stimulation of insulin release, mediated by imperatorin and chalepin.
• Coumarins / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated two new coumarins, clausenalansimin A and B, together with seven known coumarins from the twigs of C lansium. Some isolated showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, and NCI-Hi87).
• Anti-Allergic: Study showed extracts contained phenolic, flavones, alkaloid, organic acid, coumarins etc. Results showed the antiallergic components contained mainly phenolics and flavones. The inhibitory effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts on hyaluronidase was about 89 and 75% respectively.
• Bu-7 / Protection Against Rotenone Injury / Parkinson’s Disease: Study investigated Bu-7. a flavonoid isolated from the leaves of C. lansium against rotenone-injury in PC12 cells. Results showed Bu-7 protects PC12 cells against rotenone injury, which may be attributed to MAP kinases cascade signaling pathway. Bu-7 may be a potential bioactive compound for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.